International Center for Research in Agroforestry
International Center for Research in Agroforestry
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-18-2015 | Award Amount: 4.96M | Year: 2016
SALSA will assess the role of small farms and small food businesses in delivering a sustainable and secure supply of affordable, nutritious and culturally adequate food. SALSA will identify the mechanisms which, at different scales, can strengthen the role of small farms in food systems and thereby support sustainable food and nutrition security (FNS). By considering a gradient of 30 reference regions in Europe and in Africa, we will obtain a differentiated understanding of the role of small farms and small food businesses in very differently structured food systems and situations. SALSA will elaborate and implement a transdisciplinary, multi-scale approach that builds on and connects relevant theoretical and analytical frameworks within a food systems approach, and that uses qualitative, consultative and quantitative methods. We will also test a new combination of data-based methods and tools (including satellite technologies) for rigorously assessing in quantitative terms the interrelationships between small farms, other small food businesses and FNS, paying particular attention to limiting and enabling factors. SALSA will use participatory methods, at regional level, and establish a more global Community of Practice and multi-stakeholder learning platform, based on FAOs TECA online communication and learning platform. The SALSA consortium, and the joint learning and close cooperation, have both been designed with the EU - Africa dialogue in mind. Responding to the call we will unravel the complex interrelationships between small farms, small food businesses and FNS, and unfold the role played by small farms in (a) the balance between the different dimensions of sustainability, (b) maintaining more diverse production systems, (c) supporting the urban/rural balance in terms of labour and (d) in facilitating territorial development in countries facing a strong rural population growth.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE.2013.1.2-01 | Award Amount: 8.01M | Year: 2014
Agroforestry is the practice of deliberately integrating woody vegetation (trees or shrubs) with crop and/or animal systems to benefit from the resulting ecological and economic interactions. AGFORWARD (AGroFORestry that Will Advance Rural Development) is a four-year project, developed by 23 organisations at the forefront of agroforestry research, practice and promotion in Europe, with the goal of promoting appropriate agroforestry practices that advance sustainable rural development. The project will i) increase our understanding of existing, and new extensive and intensive agroforestry systems in Europe; ii) identify, develop and demonstrate innovations to improve the ecosystem service benefits and viability of agroforestry systems in Europe using participatory research, iii) develop better adapted designs and practices for the different soil and climatic conditions of Europe, and iv) promote the wide adoption of sustainable agroforestry systems. Successful and sustainable agroforestry practices are best developed by farmers and land owners working in partnership with researchers, extension staff, and other rural businesses. AGFORWARD will facilitate 33 participative agroforestry research and development stakeholder groups to improve the resilience of i) existing agroforestry systems of high nature and cultural value such as the dehesa and montado; and ii) olive, traditional orchard, and other high value tree systems, and the sustainability of iii) arable and iv) livestock systems with the integration of trees. Using existing bio-economic models, AGFORWARD will evaluate and adapt the innovations to improve the delivery of positive ecosystem services and business profitability at farm- and landscape-scales across Europe. By using and developing existing European fora, such as the European Agroforestry Federation, AGFORWARD will implement an informative and effective promotion programme to benefit the European economy, environment and society.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: KBBE-2008-1-2-07 | Award Amount: 1.17M | Year: 2009
The project first assesses the state of the art of SRF as a biofuel source in CDM and JI countries (wp1) focuses on CDM countries (wp2) and links the project to current European and non-European R&D-activities in the area (wp3). Main outputs: 1) SRF guidelines and standards for land use management (wp4) for farmers and European JI/CDM project developers as well as stakeholders from the energy and biomass sector (electric utilities, pulp & paper, fibreboard etc.) 2) a SRF R&D agenda (wp5) for researchers and industry (boiler, oven, chipper, press producers etc.)
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2008.1.1.5.1. | Award Amount: 4.77M | Year: 2009
The proposal addresses Topic ENV.2008.1.1.5.1 Addressing deforestation in tropical areas: greenhouse gas emissions, socio-economic drivers and impacts, and policy options for emissions reduction. The overall goal of the project is to contribute to the development and evaluation of mechanisms and the institutions needed at multiple levels for changing stakeholder behaviour to slow tropical deforestation rates and hence reduce GHG emissions. This will be achieved through enhancing our understanding of the social, cultural, economic and ecological drivers of forest transition in selected case study areas in Southeast Asia, Africa and South America. This understanding will facilitate the identification and assessment of viable policy options addressing the drivers of deforestation and their consistency with policy approaches on avoided deforestation, such as Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and degradation (REDD), currently being discussed in UNFCCC and other relevant international fora. At the same time, ways of improving the spatial quantification of land use change and the associated changes in GHG fluxes will be developed, thereby improving the accounting of GHG emissions resulting from land use change in tropical forest margins and peatlands. This will allow the analysis of scenarios of the local impacts of potential international climate change policies on GHG emission reductions, land use, and livelihoods in selected case study areas, the results of which will be used to develop new negotiation support tools for use with stakeholders at international, national and local scales to explore a basket of options for incorporating REDD into post-2012 climate agreements. The project will provide a unique link between international policy-makers and stakeholders on the ground who will be required to change their behaviour regarding deforestation, thereby contributing to well-informed policy-making at the international level.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2010.3.1.1-4 | Award Amount: 2.46M | Year: 2011
The WHaTeR project aims to contribute to the development of appropriate water harvesting techniques (WHTs). These WHTs should be sustainable under dynamic global and regional pressure, and strengthen rainfed agriculture, improve rural livelihood and increase food production and security in Sub-Saharan Africa. In total 3 European and 5 African organisations will be involved; namely VU University Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Newcastle University (United Kingdom), Stockholm Resilience Centre (Sweden), University of Kwazulu Natal (South Africa), Sokoine University (Tanzania), Southern and Eastern Africa Rainwater Network (Kenya), National Institute for Environment and Agricultural Research (Burkina Faso) and Arba Minch University (Ethiopia). Project activities will be divided over 14 Work Packages. The first Work Package covers project management and the second comprises a situation analysis - through revisits to water harvesting sites in 15 African countries studied previously by participating organisations . The next four Work Packages focus on detailed research and technology development activities on cross-cutting themes (environmental sustainability; technology development; livelihood improvement; uptake and upscaling; and global and regional impact) and will be conducted together with four country-based Work Packages (in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, South Africa and Tanzania). One Work Package will concentrate on stakeholder communication and outreaching activities, and the final Work Packages consists of synthesis and dissemination of project results, inclduing production of guidelines for WHTs. The project will spend an estimated 74% of the budget on RTD, 13% on other costs related to stakeholder workshops and outreaching and 13% on project management. The expected impacts of the project comprise technology support for farmers, development of stakeholder communication networks, innovative water harvesting systems, tools for impact assessment, upstream-downstream land use, and policy support for integrated water management and adaptation to climate change to promote EU and African strategies on strengthening rainfed agriculture, food security and livelihoods.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2010.2.1.1-1 | Award Amount: 4.16M | Year: 2011
Threats to the environment and natural resources, coupled with poor management, have serious implications for both poverty reduction and sustainable economic development. Degrading natural resources in Africa therefore result in an inreased vulnerability of the poor as a result of ecosystem stress, competition for space, soaring food and energy prices, climate change and demographic growth. Nowadays, it is widely accepted that reversing these trends asks for integrated management frameworks. Despite the availability of many tools, expertise, strategies, local practices and indigenous knowledge, the concept of INRM has hardly been brought into practice and the building blocks of INRM (see description acronym) in many cases still need to be integrated. AFROMAISON will make use of what is available regarding INRM and will contribute to a better integration of the components of INRM. In view of the decentralization policy in Africa, we aim to focus on the operational requirements of INRM for sub-national (or meso-scale) authorities and communities. The main outputs of AFROMAISON are a toolbox, short-term to long-term strategies, quick wins (much gains with little effort) and operational strategies for adaptation to global change. In order to enhance the potential impact, we will put strong efforts in integrated capacity building and a solid dissemination strategy. In order to do so, we will integrate tools, frameworks, strategies and processes for landscape functioning, livelihood & socio-economic development (incl. vulnerability to global change), local knowledge, institutional strenghtening and improved interaction between sectors, scales and communities. For the development of concrete operational strategies for adaptation to global change, AFROMAISON will focus on the three groups of tools: strategies for restoration and adaptation (including sustainable landscape intensification), economic tools and incentives for INRM and tools for spatial planning.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: ENV.2011.5.1.0-1 | Award Amount: 1.27M | Year: 2011
The main aim of the AfriCAN Climate project is the development, operation and promotion of a web-based Knowledge Platform for efficient dissemination of climate change research results and good practices, to encourage users for uptake of success stories and research knowledge in new projects. Thereby, the project will contribute to mitigate climate change impacts on African regions and help communities to adapt to the changing climatic conditions. Emphasis will be placed on a variety of innovative and creative web functionalities (e-tools) when developing the interactive, multimedia, pan-continental, multi-lingual and interdisciplinary AfriCAN Climate Platform. The new platform visitors, the already registered users and the members of the online communities will be facilitated by the editorial team to actively participate in knowledge exchange and uptake of research results. The high profile consortium includes a large variety of experienced EU and African organizations, corresponding to the diversity of target audience addressed by the call. The experts in the consortium achieve full thematic, linguistic and geographical coverage to serve the African continents climate change knowledge needs. They will jointly build and continuously update a knowledgebase to feed the platform. Country fact sheets on climate change impacts will be developed for all 54 African countries. Strategic networking meetings with information multipliers and FP7 National Contact Points will be held on a regular base to encourage them to become active on the Platform by building climate change interest communities, or joining existing communities. On a yearly base, large promotional events will be organized, hosting the AfriCAN Climate Music/Art and Good Practice Award. Technical tours to good practice sites and workshops on uptake of lessons learn in good practice projects and financing will complement the networking activities and improve South-South Cooperation amongst African regions.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2010.1.1.6-1 | Award Amount: 4.29M | Year: 2011
At COP15 in Copenhagen one outcome was a commitment to develop a mechanism for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and enhancing carbon stocks (REDD\). There is, however, only a limited research basis for such a mechanism particularly with regard to the need for understanding and monitoring the impact of REDD\ activities on climate effectiveness, cost efficiency, equity and co-benefits. I-REDD\ will approach these challenges from a truly interdisciplinary perspective. The overall objective will be to obtain an improved understanding of how the implementation of REDD\ mechanisms may 1) reduce emissions of GHG and maintain or enhance existing stocks of carbon in vegetation and soil of various land cover types; 2) impact livelihoods and welfare of local farming communities and differences between communities; 3) impact biodiversity conservation, and 4) provide a realistic framework for monitoring, reporting and verification of REDD\, including the importance of governance and accountability at multiple levels. To complement other research initiatives we propose to work in the uplands of Southeast Asia in the Heart of Borneo, Kalimantan, Indonesia, and in the northern parts of Lao PDR and Vietnam, and Yunnan in Southwest China. Rapid land use transitions from forest and shifting cultivation to other, more intensive land use systems and widespread forest degradation are occurring in these areas, making the potential for REDD\ particularly pronounced. Moreover, REDD\ may considerably impact on local economies, because of the high population densities in the region. The partners in I-REDD\ are leading research institutions in Europe and Southeast Asia, international research organizations, an NGO and an SME. The consortium has a strong emphasis on local dissemination and capacity development in order to ensure that project results influence REDD\ policy development at local, national and global level.
Luedeling E.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry |
Gassner A.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology | Year: 2012
Many biological processes produce only one quantitative outcome per year, resulting from temperatures and precipitation during hundreds of days leading up to the event. Traditional regression approaches incur problems in such a setting, because independent variables are highly autocorrelated and their number often greatly exceeds the number of observations. Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS), a statistical analysis tool developed to handle these situations and widely used in hyperspectral remote sensing, was tested for its usefulness for explaining the climate responses of biological processes, using walnut phenology in California as an example.Observations of first female bloom, first male bloom and leaf emergence of three walnut cultivars at Davis, CA were coupled with daily temperature data since 1951. The dataset was analyzed by PLS, using three temperature inputs: (1) daily mean temperatures, (2) 11-day running means of daily mean temperatures and (3) monthly mean temperatures. For all data constellations, the Variable-Importance-in-the-Projection (VIP) statistic indicated a number of periods, during which temperatures were important determinants of phenological events, and the model-coefficients-of-the-centered-and-scaled-data (MC) statistic showed the direction, in which high temperatures during these phases influenced walnut flowering and leaf emergence. In all analyses, a delaying effect of warm winters, and an advancing effect of warm springs were clearly visible. It was also possible to identify the transition between the chilling and forcing phases, and the VIP and MC plots indicated quantitative differences in the effectiveness of winter chill during different phases of the dormancy season. Such effects have not been captured in any phenology models currently applied to fruit trees, indicating that PLS has potential to help refine such models. PLS can also be used for guiding experimental research by pinpointing the parts of the season that are most important for the timing of budburst. Results suggested that more than 20 years of observed data were necessary for producing clearly recognizable temperature response patterns, limiting the applicability of PLS to long time series. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..
Luedeling E.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2012
Temperate fruit and nut species require exposure to chilling conditions in winter to break dormancy and produce high yields. Adequate winter chill is an important site characteristic for commercial orchard operations, and quantifying chill is crucial for orchard management. Climate change may impact winter chill. With a view to adapting orchards to climate change, this review assesses the state of knowledge in modelling winter chill and the performance of various modelling approaches. It then goes on to present assessments of past and projected future changes in winter chill for fruit growing regions and discusses potential adaptation strategies. Some of the most common approaches to modelling chill, in particular the Chilling Hours approach, are very sensitive to temperature increases, and have also been found to perform poorly, especially in warm growing regions. The Dynamic Model offers a more complex but also more accurate alternative, and use of this model is recommended. Chill changes projected with the Dynamic Model are typically much less severe than those estimated with other models. Nevertheless, projections of future chill consistently indicate substantial losses for the warmest growing regions, while temperate regions will experience relatively little change, and cold regions may even see chill increases. Growers can adapt to lower chill by introducing low-chill cultivars, by influencing orchard microclimates and by applying rest-breaking chemicals. Given substantial knowledge gaps in tree dormancy, accurate models are still a long way off. Since timely adaptation is essential for growers of long-lived high-value perennials, alternative ways of adaptation planning are needed. Climate analogues, which are present-day manifestations of future projected climates, can be used for identifying and testing future-adapted species and cultivars. Horticultural researchers and practitioners should work towards the development and widespread adoption of better chill accumulation and dormancy models, for facilitating quantitatively appropriate adaptation planning. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.