International Center for Reproductive Health

Mombasa, Kenya

International Center for Reproductive Health

Mombasa, Kenya

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Pack A.P.,FHI 360 | L'Engle K.,FHI 360 | Mwarogo P.,FHI 360 | Kingola N.,International Center for Reproductive Health
Culture, Health and Sexuality | Year: 2014

Female sex workers are known to be at risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) from numerous sources including clients, pimps, boyfriends and husbands. Better understanding the factors associated with IPV in this population will enhance prevention efforts. This work examines baseline survey data collected as part of a randomised controlled trial for an alcohol-harm reduction intervention. The study sample included 619 sex workers. IPV was common in this sample, with 78.7% of women reporting any IPV in the last 30 days. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that supporting one to two other people, experiencing child abuse, witnessing mother abuse, and greater alcohol consumption were risk factors for IPV in our sample. Women who frequented Population, Health and Integrated Assistance (APHIA) II drop-in centres located along transport corridors were also at greater risk of recent IPV, as compared with those who frequented other drop-in centres. Only one protective effect was identified in this study: condom use at last sex with a non-paying partner was associated with less recent IPV. Health programmes for women sex workers in Mombasa and elsewhere need to expand beyond HIV prevention - they need to incorporate information on violence prevention and treatment referrals, as well as information on alcohol harm reduction. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Bork K.,IRD Montpellier | Cames C.,IRD Montpellier | Cournil A.,IRD Montpellier | Musyoka F.,International Center for Reproductive Health | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2013

Objective: To assess breastfeeding modes and determinants in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission study. Design: HIV-1-infected pregnant women from 5 sites in Burkina Faso, Kenya, and South Africa were enrolled in the study that comprised 2 prospective cohorts and 1 randomized controlled trial. Women were counseled to either breastfeed exclusively up to 6 months or formula feed from birth. Methods: Determinants of breastfeeding initiation and continuation by 3 months postpartum were investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Neonatal morbidity was defined as mother-reported fever, diarrhea, or vomiting during the first month of life. Results: Among 1028, 781 women (76%) initiated breastfeeding and 565 of 995 (56%) were still breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum (30% exclusively, 18% predominantly, and 8% partially). Study site (Durban, Mombasa, and Nairobi compared with Bobo-Dioulasso), CD4 cell count (<200 cells/mm), secondary schooling (compared with none), and emergency cesarean delivery (compared with vaginal delivery) were independently associated with a lower probability of ever breastfeeding. The odds of still breastfeeding by 3 months postpartum (among those breastfeeding by 1 month) were lower in Mombasa, Nairobi, and Somkhele (compared with Bobo-Dioulasso) and among infants with neonatal morbidity [0.60 (0.37-0.976)]. The odds of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) by 3 months (if EBF by 1 month) were lower in Mombasa and Nairobi, in ill neonates [0.54 (0.31-0.93)] and boys [0.51 (0.34-0.77)]. Conclusions: EBF was of short duration, particularly for boys. The importance of neonatal morbidity for breastfeeding cessation requires further investigation. Infant feeding counseling might need adaptation to better support mothers of boys and ill neonates. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Mannava P.,Burnet Institute | Geibel S.,Population Council | King'ola N.,International Center for Reproductive Health | Temmerman M.,International Center for Reproductive Health | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objective: To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior. Design: Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. Methods: Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, HIV and STI knowledge, and health service usage. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate logistic regression, after controlling for year of survey, was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with heterosexual anal intercourse. Results: From a sample of 867 male sex workers, 297 men had sex with a woman during the previous 30 days - of whom 45% did so with a female client and 86% with a non-paying female partner. Within these groups, 66% and 43% of male sex workers had anal intercourse with a female client and non-paying partner respectively. Factors associated with reporting recent heterosexual anal intercourse in bivariate logistic regression after controlling for year of survey participation were being Muslim, ever or currently married, living with wife only, living with a female partner only, living with more than one sexual partner, self-identifying as basha/king/bisexual, having one's own children, and lower education. Conclusions: We found unexpectedly high levels of self-reported anal sex with women by male sex workers, including selling sex to female clients as well as with their own partners. Further investigation among women in Mombasa is needed to understand heterosexual anal sex practices, and how HIV programming may respond. © 2013 Mannava et al.


Geibel S.,Population Council | King'ola N.,International Center for Reproductive Health | Temmerman M.,International Center for Reproductive Health | Temmerman M.,Ghent University | And 2 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Infections | Year: 2012

Introduction: Targeting most at-risk populations is an essential component of HIV prevention strategies. Peer education programmes have been found to increase HIV knowledge, condom use and safer sex behaviours among female sex workers in Africa and men who have sex with men elsewhere. The authors aimed to evaluate the impact of a peer-driven intervention on male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. Methods: Using time-venue sampling, a baseline survey of 425 male sex workers was conducted in late 2006, after which, 40 peer educators were trained in HIV prevention, basic counselling skills and distribution of condoms and lubricants. A follow-up time-venue survey of 442 male sex workers was conducted in early 2008, and pre- and post-intervention changes were examined. The impact of peer educator exposure on HIV knowledge and condom use was analysed. Results: Positive changes in HIV prevention behaviours were observed, including increases in consistent use of condoms with both male clients (35.9%-50.2%, p<0.001) and non-paying male partners (27.4%-39.5%, p=0.008). Exposure to peer educators (AOR=1.97, 95% CI 1.29 to 3.02) and ever having been counselled or tested for HIV (AOR=1.71, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.66) were associated with consistent condom use in multivariate analysis. Peer educator contact was also associated with improved HIV knowledge and use of water-based lubricants. Conclusions: Peer outreach programming reached highly stigmatised male sex workers in Mombasa, resulting in significant, but limited, improvements in HIV knowledge and prevention behaviours. Improved peer coverage and additional prevention initiatives are needed to sufficiently mitigate HIV transmission.


Brodish P.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Singh K.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Rinyuri A.,International Center for Reproductive Health | Njeru C.,International Center for Reproductive Health | And 4 more authors.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2011

Background: Injection drug users (IDUs) in resource poor settings are at high risk for HIV transmission through unsafe needle-sharing and sexual practices. We report on the injecting and sexual behavior of a sample of IDUs from Malindi, Kenya. Methods: A Priority for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE) study was conducted from April to May 2010 to identify areas where HIV transmission is most likely to occur and specific venues where people meet new sexual partners. Community informants (n= 202) listed 157 unique venues from which 29 were randomly selected using a systematic fixed interval sampling strategy with probability of selection proportional to venue size. Twenty patrons and four workers were interviewed at each venue. Drug use practices were elicited in a staff-administered interview. Results: Between 40% and 50% of IDUs reported needle-sharing, taking drugs from a common reservoir, using a ready-made solution without boiling, and not exchanging a used for a new syringe in the past month. Most could inconsistently or never get new syringes. In multivariate logistic regression models controlling for age, education, residence, and poverty status, IDUs were twice as likely as non-IDUs to report multiple partners in the past year (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.26-3.00, p< .01) and multiple new partners in the past year (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.30-3.42, p< .01). Conclusions: High prevalence of multiple sexual partnerships and risky injecting behaviors among IDUs and unavailability of new injecting needles are likely facilitating HIV transmission in Malindi, Kenya. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Chersich M.F.,University of Witwatersrand | Chersich M.F.,Ghent University | Bosire W.,International Center for Reproductive Health | King'ola N.,International Center for Reproductive Health | And 5 more authors.
Globalization and Health | Year: 2014

Aims: To investigate putative links between alcohol use, and unsafe sex and incident HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa.Methods: A cohort of 400 HIV-negative female sex workers was established in Mombasa, Kenya. Associations between categories of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the incidence at one year of unsafe sex, HIV and pregnancy were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Violence or STIs other than HIV measured at one year was compared across AUDIT categories using multivariate logistic regression.Results: Participants had high levels of hazardous (17.3%, 69/399) and harmful drinking (9.5%, 38/399), while 36.1% abstained from alcohol. Hazardous and harmful drinkers had more unprotected sex and higher partner numbers than abstainers. Sex while feeling drunk was frequent and associated with lower condom use. Occurrence of condom accidents rose step-wise with each increase in AUDIT category. Compared with non-drinkers, women with harmful drinking had 4.1-fold higher sexual violence (95% CI adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.9-8.9) and 8.4 higher odds of physical violence (95% CI AOR = 3.9-18.0), while hazardous drinkers had 3.1-fold higher physical violence (95% CI AOR = 1.7-5.6). No association was detected between AUDIT category and pregnancy, or infection with Syphilis or Trichomonas vaginalis. The adjusted hazard ratio of HIV incidence was 9.6 comparing women with hazardous drinking to non-drinkers (95% CI = 1.1-87.9).Conclusions: Unsafe sex, partner violence and HIV incidence were higher in women with alcohol use disorders. This prospective study, using validated alcohol measures, indicates that harmful or hazardous alcohol can influence sexual behaviour. Possible mechanisms include increased unprotected sex, condom accidents and exposure to sexual violence. Experimental evidence is required demonstrating that interventions to reduce alcohol use can avert unsafe sex. © 2014 Chersich et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Luchters S.,Ghent University | Geibel S.,Population Council | Syengo M.,International Center for Reproductive Health | Lango D.,International Center for Reproductive Health | And 4 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2011

Background: Previous research has linked alcohol use with an increased number of sexual partners, inconsistent condom use and a raised incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, alcohol measures have been poorly standardised, with many ill-suited to eliciting, with adequate precision, the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behaviour. This study investigates which alcohol indicator - single-item measures of frequency and patterns of drinking ( > = 6 drinks on 1 occasion), or the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) - can detect associations between alcohol use and unsafe sexual behaviour among male sex workers. Methods. A cross-sectional survey in 2008 recruited male sex workers who sell sex to men from 65 venues in Mombasa district, Kenya, similar to a 2006 survey. Information was collected on socio-demographics, substance use, sexual behaviour, violence and STI symptoms. Multivariate models examined associations between the three measures of alcohol use and condom use, sexual violence, and penile or anal discharge. Results: The 442 participants reported a median 2 clients/week (IQR = 1-3), with half using condoms consistently in the last 30 days. Of the approximately 70% of men who drink alcohol, half (50.5%) drink two or more times a week. Binge drinking was common (38.9%). As defined by AUDIT, 35% of participants who drink had hazardous drinking, 15% harmful drinking and 21% alcohol dependence. Compared with abstinence, alcohol dependence was associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 2.5, 95%CI = 1.3-4.6), penile or anal discharge (AOR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.0-3.8), and two-fold higher odds of sexual violence (AOR = 2.0, 95%CI = 0.9-4.9). Frequent drinking was associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 1.8, 95%CI = 1.1-3.0) and partner number, while binge drinking was only linked with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 1.6, 95%CI = 1.0-2.5). Conclusions: Male sex workers have high levels of hazardous and harmful drinking, and require alcohol-reduction interventions. Compared with indicators of drinking frequency or pattern, the AUDIT measure has stronger associations with inconsistent condom use, STI symptoms and sexual violence. Increased use of the AUDIT tool in future studies may assist in delineating with greater precision the explanatory mechanisms which link alcohol use, drinking contexts, sexual behaviours and HIV transmission. © 2011 Luchters et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


L'Engle K.L.,Social and Behavioral Health science | Mwarogo P.,FHI 360 | Kingola N.,International Center for Reproductive Health | Sinkele W.,Support for Addiction Prevention and Treatment in Africa SAPTA | Weiner D.H.,Biostatistics
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2014

Objective: We assessed whether a brief alcohol intervention would lead to reduced alcohol use and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV incidence and related sexual risk behaviors among moderate drinking female sex workers. Methods: A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted with 818 female sex workers affiliated with the AIDS, Population, Health, and Integrated Assistance II project in Mombasa, Kenya. Eligible women were hazardous or harmful drinkers who scored between 7 and 19 (full range, 1-40) on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Intervention participants received 6 counseling sessions approximately monthly. The equal-attention control group received 6 nutrition sessions. Participants were followed for 6 and 12 months after the intervention, with at least 86% retention at both time points. We used general linear models in intention-to-treat analyses, adjusting for recruitment setting and HIV status at enrollment. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in alcohol use and binge drinking at 6 and 12 months, with intervention participants reporting less than one third of the odds of higher levels of drinking than the control group. The intervention did not impact laboratory-confirmed STI/HIV incidence, self-reported condom use, or sexual violence from nonpaying partners. However, the odds of reporting sexual violence from clients was significantly lower among intervention than control participants at both 6 and 12 months. Conclusions: We found that a brief alcohol intervention can reduce self-reported alcohol consumption among a nondependent and non-treatment-seeking population most at risk for HIV. More attention is needed to understand the pathway from drinking to sexual behavior and STI/HIV acquisition. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Bengtson A.M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Mwarogo P.,FHI 360 | King'Ola N.,International Center for Reproductive Health
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2014

HIV testing is a critical first step to accessing HIV care and treatment, particularly for high-risk groups such as female sex workers (FSWs). Alcohol use may be a barrier to accessing HIV services, including HIV testing. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 818 FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya, and estimated the association between different levels of alcohol use and having never tested for HIV. In multivariable analyses, higher levels of alcohol consumption were associated with having never tested for HIV (PR 1.60; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.40). Future interventions should explore whether reducing harmful drinking improves HIV testing among FSWs. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Okal J.,International Center for Reproductive Health | Chersich M.F.,Ghent University | Chersich M.F.,University of Witwatersrand | Tsui S.,Research Triangle Park | And 4 more authors.
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2011

Few studies in Africa provide detailed descriptions of the vulnerabilities of female sex workers (FSW) to sexual and physical violence, and how this impacts on their HIV risk. This qualitative study documents FSW's experiences of violence in Mombasa and Naivasha, Kenya. Eighty-one FSW who obtained clients from the streets, transportation depots, taverns, discos and residential areas were recruited through local sex workers trained as peer counsellors to participate in eight focus-group discussions. Analysis showed the pervasiveness of sexual and physical violence among FSW, commonly triggered by negotiation around condoms and payment. Pressing financial needs of FSW, gender-power differentials, illegality of trading in sex and cultural subscriptions to men's entitlement for sex sans money underscore much of this violence. Sex workers with more experience had developed skills to avoid threats of violence by identifying potentially violent clients, finding safer working areas and minimising conflict with the police. Addressing violence and concomitant HIV risks and vulnerabilities faced by FSW should be included in Kenya's national HIV/AIDS strategic plan. This study indicates the need for multilevel interventions, including legal reforms so that laws governing sex work promote the health and human rights of sex workers in Kenya. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

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