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Finizio A.,University of Milan Bicocca | Azimonti G.,International Center for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention | Villa S.,University of Milan Bicocca
Journal of Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2011

In recent years, several monitoring programs have been established as a consequence of EU Directives which include requirements for monitoring the quality of water resources (drinking water, groundwater and surface water). Plant protection products (PPPs) are an obvious target for monitoring activities, since they are directly released into the environment. In Italy, the National Environmental Protection Agency (ISPRA ex APAT) has recently published two reports containing the results of the National Plans for Control of Environmental Effects of PPP. These documents contain the collection of monitoring data related to the presence of PPP residues in surface water and groundwater. The first objective of this work was to critically analyze the results of monitoring campaigns on pesticide residues in surface waters in Italy. In particular, the paper focuses on whether and how the Italian approach satisfies the requirements of the Water Framework Directive, whether they are representative of the whole national territory, and how the utilized approach is appropriate for the characterization of risk to surface water. Starting from this analysis, some considerations about the limits of environmental monitoring as a tool for managing risk were highlighted. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


London L.,University of Cape Town | Coggon D.,University of Southampton | Moretto A.,University of Milan | Moretto A.,International Center for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source | Year: 2010

The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter. © 2010 London et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Bozzo S.,University of Milan Bicocca | Azimonti G.,International Center for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention | Villa S.,University of Milan Bicocca | Di Guardo A.,Informatica Ambientale Srl | Finizio A.,University of Milan Bicocca
Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts | Year: 2013

In the last few years, several monitoring programs were established as an effect of the EU Directives which included requirements for monitoring the quality of water resources (drinking water, groundwater and surface water). Plant Protection Products (PPPs) are an obvious target for monitoring activities, since they are directly released into the environment. In Italy, the National Environmental Protection Agency (ISPRA) has recently published several reports containing the results of the National Plans for Control of Environmental Effects of PPPs. These documents contain the collection of monitoring data related to the presence of PPP residues in surface and groundwater systems. In this paper, these results (monitoring campaigns from 2005 to 2009) were analysed. Particularly, the attention was focused on the concentration levels of terbuthylazine (TBZ) and its metabolite desethyl-terbuthylazine (DTZ) detected in the groundwater systems of the Lombardia Region (Northern Italy). The analysis allowed us to identify the spatial and temporal trends of contamination of both substances. Furthermore the DTZ/TBZ ratio was calculated in order to recognize point and non-point sources of contamination. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Urso P.,University of Milan | Cattaneo A.,HIGH-TECH | Garramone G.,International Center for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention | Peruzzo C.,V Foundation | And 2 more authors.
Building and Environment | Year: 2015

Particulate matter (PM) has well-known negative health effects on humans. PM exposure occurs mainly indoors because people spend most of their time inside buildings, especially in their homes. This study aimed at investigating the impact of the principal outdoor factors, house characteristics and indoor activities on size-fractionated PM concentrations in a real exposure scenario consisting of 60 living rooms in the province of Lodi (River Po Valley, Northern Italy), characterized by high pollution levels. Nearby road traffic played a pivotal role for all the studied fractions, with heavy duty vehicles affecting thecoarser fractions especially when building density was lower. PM2.5-10 arose also from indoor determinants linked to cleaning activities and house occupancy and was inversely related with house volume. Statistical analysis showed that ambient PM10 was a reliable predictor of PM fractions <2.5μm, but other indoor sources should be considered, such as ETS for PM0.5 and open fireplaces use for the PM0.5-1. Some protective factors were identified, such as the use of exhaust ventilation in kitchens (PM0.5-1) and sealed windows and doors (PM0.25). Some determinants were also season-related (open fireplaces use, floor level, built-on garages). In conclusion, the study provides an insight on the main PM determinants commonly present in residential environments. The results can be useful in addressing some self-corrected choices by home occupants and in developing meaningful risk mitigation strategies by local institutions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Cattaneo A.,University of Milan | Taronna M.,University of Insubria | Garramone G.,International Center for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention | Peruzzo C.,Occupational Health Unit | And 3 more authors.
Aerosol Science and Technology | Year: 2010

This study tested the reliability of a novel method developed for assessing the individual exposure to size-fractionated particulate matter (PM) and gaseous urban pollutants. Individual exposure was defined as the exposure constantly measured in proximity to the subject, even during transfers. Individual exposure was measured using a mobile monitoring unit (MMU), developed to sample simultaneously some urban pollutants of interest for public health purposes. The obtained concentrations were compared with those simultaneously collected in the breathing zone, considered as the gold standard for estimating human exposure to air pollutants. Short-time number concentrations of ultrafine, fine, and coarse particles collected by MMU were characterized by a high predictivity of personal exposures (R2 0.89; slope 0.94-1.17 for PM 10 m), far superior to fixed-site measurements. 5-h time-weighted averages fully explained the variability of ultrafine and fine particles (R2 0.99). The concentrations of gaseous pollutants measured by MMU were less correlated with those collected in the breathing zone (R2 = 0.34-0.65). Nevertheless, the capability of the MMU to detect the variations of personal exposures to O3 and CO was better than that normally observed using fixed measurements, likely due to the placement of the MMU in the different microenvironments where subjects spent their time. Individual exposures measured by the MMU could be of importance in toxicological and epidemiological studies on PM, with the advantage of accounting for exposure to several gaseous co-pollutants. Source

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