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Moretto A.,University of Milan | Moretto A.,International Center for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention | Moretto A.,International Center for Rural Health | Colosio C.,University of Milan | And 2 more authors.
Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro ed Ergonomia | Year: 2011

Epidemioloetcal studies on neurodevelopmental effects of pesticides are inconclusive. Experimental developmental neurotoxicity studies, sometimes show effects on pups given doses lower than adults; most of the times these effects were transient, aspecific, with scattered biochemical, molecular or neurobehavioural changes, generally associated with high bolus doses. At repeated low doses, effects in pups did not occur at doses lower than in adults. Since the effects of high bolus doses are possible, preventive interventions should aim at reducing these exposures. © PI-ME, Pavia 2011.


Finizio A.,University of Milan Bicocca | Azimonti G.,International Center for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention | Villa S.,University of Milan Bicocca
Journal of Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2011

In recent years, several monitoring programs have been established as a consequence of EU Directives which include requirements for monitoring the quality of water resources (drinking water, groundwater and surface water). Plant protection products (PPPs) are an obvious target for monitoring activities, since they are directly released into the environment. In Italy, the National Environmental Protection Agency (ISPRA ex APAT) has recently published two reports containing the results of the National Plans for Control of Environmental Effects of PPP. These documents contain the collection of monitoring data related to the presence of PPP residues in surface water and groundwater. The first objective of this work was to critically analyze the results of monitoring campaigns on pesticide residues in surface waters in Italy. In particular, the paper focuses on whether and how the Italian approach satisfies the requirements of the Water Framework Directive, whether they are representative of the whole national territory, and how the utilized approach is appropriate for the characterization of risk to surface water. Starting from this analysis, some considerations about the limits of environmental monitoring as a tool for managing risk were highlighted. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Di Nica V.,University of Milan Bicocca | Menaballi L.,International Center for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention | Azimonti G.,International Center for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention | Finizio A.,University of Milan Bicocca
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2015

In recent years veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) have been recognized as emerging contaminants, giving rise to concerns regarding their environmental impact. Due to the high number of utilized VMPs, it is necessary to develop tools (indicators) for ranking these compounds according to their environmental risk relevance. These indicators can be useful, for example, for setting up monitoring programmes, and more in general for risk management purposes. In this paper we propose a new scoring system method (RANKVET) that enables ranking the risk of VMPs for aquatic and terrestrial organisms. The procedure is fully based on the information required by the EU Directives and Regulations for marketing authorization of VMPs and Veterinary International Conference on Harmonization (VICH) guidelines. According to the latter, if the environmental risk assessment of a VMP indicates an unacceptable risk to the environment, i.e., the risk quotient (RQ) consisting of the ratio of Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC) to Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) is ≥1, then mitigation measures should be proposed by the applicant in order to reduce the risk to an acceptable level. If a risk mitigation measure does not fulfil the criteria mentioned above then the outcome of the risk assessment is that a serious risk for the environment exists. In accordance with Directive 2001/82/EC (as amended) this risk has to be weighed against the favourable aspects of a marketing authorization. The prioritization scheme is based on a quantitative approach and consist of different phases. First, for each VMP, PECs are calculated using simple exposure models and worst case assumptions. PNECs are calculated for non-target organisms representative of the considered ecosystems (soil or surface water). Then numerical scores are given to the calculated PEC/PNEC ratio. Finally, the obtained score is multiplied with a further score which is based on the relevance of the metabolic rate in animals. RANKVET can be applied for surface water and soil systems and for different farming methods (intensive or pasture) and treated species. As an example of its potential use we applied RANKVET to 48 VMPs largely utilized in Italy. ©2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Bozzo S.,University of Milan Bicocca | Azimonti G.,International Center for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention | Villa S.,University of Milan Bicocca | Di Guardo A.,Informatica Ambientale Srl | Finizio A.,University of Milan Bicocca
Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts | Year: 2013

In the last few years, several monitoring programs were established as an effect of the EU Directives which included requirements for monitoring the quality of water resources (drinking water, groundwater and surface water). Plant Protection Products (PPPs) are an obvious target for monitoring activities, since they are directly released into the environment. In Italy, the National Environmental Protection Agency (ISPRA) has recently published several reports containing the results of the National Plans for Control of Environmental Effects of PPPs. These documents contain the collection of monitoring data related to the presence of PPP residues in surface and groundwater systems. In this paper, these results (monitoring campaigns from 2005 to 2009) were analysed. Particularly, the attention was focused on the concentration levels of terbuthylazine (TBZ) and its metabolite desethyl-terbuthylazine (DTZ) detected in the groundwater systems of the Lombardia Region (Northern Italy). The analysis allowed us to identify the spatial and temporal trends of contamination of both substances. Furthermore the DTZ/TBZ ratio was calculated in order to recognize point and non-point sources of contamination. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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