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Robinson-Agramonte M.A.,International Center for Neurological Restoration | Goncalves C.A.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Portela V.L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Saiz-Hinarejos A.,Laboratory of Experimental Neurology and Immunology | And 5 more authors.
NeuroImmunoModulation | Year: 2010

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), an uncommon central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease, produces transverse myelitis and severe optic neuritis. IgG-NMO autoantibody, a specific immunoglobulin binding aquaporin-4 water channel protein, confirms that NMO is a different entity to multiple sclerosis. Parallel to cytokine down-regulations found in serum of relapsing-NMO (rNMO) patients, it has been reported that IgG-NMO may also confer a worse course of the disease in r-NMO Caribbean patients. In this study, we were interested in exploring the influence of IgG-NMO autoantibody on S100β levels and clinical parameters from serum of r-NMO patients. Serum samples from 24 rNMO patients and 10 controls were evaluated. The reduction of S100β observed in r-NMO patients was not significant compared to controls; and no differences were present regarding IgG-NMO immunoreactivity. At the same time, a significant correlation was also observed between IgG-NMO autoantibody serum detection and EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale) in rNMO. These results corroborate a differential regulation of IgG-NMO autoantibodies on the S100β glial marker and on the disability present in rNMO patients. © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Kudolo J.,Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology IfN | Tabassum H.,Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology IfN | Frey S.,Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology IfN | Lopez J.,Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology IfN | And 3 more authors.
Neuroscience | Year: 2010

The interest on the physiology of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has grown in recent years given its relationship to addictive behaviours, and the possibility to treat them by interacting with NAcc function. We have shown that the prior stimulation of the core region blocks induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) at the dentate gyrus in anaesthetized rats, while the shell facilitated it. In the present study we have confirmed and expanded those results testing the effects of core and shell stimulation in freely moving rats, as well as the effect of blocking D1 receptors in the NAcc. Our results show that shell stimulation had no effect on baseline recordings of the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) or the population spike amplitude (PSA) for 24 h. Core stimulation did not modify baseline-fEPSP, but significantly depressed PSA up to 8 h. LTP maintenance was not modified; neither by core nor shell stimulation after its induction, but LTP induction was impaired (both in the fEPSP and PSA) by core stimulation 15 min before induction. Shell stimulation showed a slight facilitating effect. Previous, topical application of a dopaminergic-receptor antagonist (SCH23390) into the NAcc produced a significantly depressed baseline fEPSP and PSA, as well as LTP measured in both components of the evoked potentials. Our results confirm a dual role of stimulation of NAcc sub-regions on hippocampal baseline synaptic transmission, and LTP induction when activated before induction. In contrast, stimulation of the NAcc had no influence on an already ongoing dentate gyrus LTP. A role for dopaminergic innervation to the NAcc, modifying susceptibility for synaptic plasticity outside the NAcc is also suggested by our results. © 2010 IBRO.

Bringas M.L.,International Center for Neurological Restoration
BMJ case reports | Year: 2011

The authors report a case of a 55-year-old Caucasian woman who received autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation 3 years after a subcortical stroke. She exhibited positive cognitive changes 6 months and 1 year after the surgery without rehabilitation. The blood flow changes, measured with SPECT, were statistical significant in prefrontal areas. During the presurgical neuropsychological assessment, the patient presented a critical speech reduction, reflected in impaired performance in verbal fluency, vocabulary and in each task which required overt verbal response. One year later, she showed improvement in mental flexibility, receptive language, phonological fluency, verbal memory and auditory verbal memory. Positive cognitive changes in verbal and executive functions seem to be contingent on increased blood flow in prefrontal areas. Posterior neuropsychological evaluation 3 and 5 years after transplantation did not show deterioration of the cognitive improvement.

Hernandez-Gonzalez G.,Cuban Neuroscience Center | Bringas-Vega M.L.,International Center for Neurological Restoration | Galan-Garcia L.,Cuban Neuroscience Center | Bosch-Bayard J.,Cuban Neuroscience Center | And 5 more authors.
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience | Year: 2011

This article reviews the contributions of the Cuban Neuroscience Center to the evolution of the statistical parametric mapping (SPM) of quantitative Multimodal Neuroimages (qMN), from its inception to more recent work. Attention is limited to methods that compare individual qMN to normative databases (n/qMN). This evolution is described in three successive stages: (a) the development of one variant of normative topographical quantitative EEG (n/qEEG-top) which carries out statistical comparison of individual EEG spectral topographies with regard to a normative database - as part of the now popular SPM of brain descriptive parameters; (b) the development of n/qEEG tomography (n/qEEG-TOM), which employs brain electrical tomography (BET) to calculate voxelwise SPM maps of source spectral features with respect to a norm; (c) the development of a more general n/qMN by substituting EEG parameters with other neuroimaging descriptive parameters to obtain SPM maps. The study also describes the creation of Cuban normative databases, starting with the Cuban EEG database obtained in the early 90s, and more recently, the Cuban Human Brain Mapping Project (CHBMP). This project has created a 240 subject database of the normal Cuban population, obtained from a population-based random sample, comprising clinical, neuropsychological, EEG, MRI and SPECT data for the same subjects. Examples of clinical studies using qMN are given and, more importantly, receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analyses of the different developments document a sustained effort to assess the clinical usefulness of the techniques.

Baez-Martin M.M.,International Center for Neurological Restoration | Morales-Chacon L.M.,International Center for Neurological Restoration | Garcia-Maeso I.,International Center for Neurological Restoration | Estupinan-Diaz B.,International Center for Neurological Restoration | And 7 more authors.
Epilepsy Research | Year: 2014

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of the anterior temporal lobectomy on the functional state of the auditory pathway in a group of drug-resistant epileptic patients, linking the electrophysiological results to the resection magnitude. Twenty-seven patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and a matched control group were studied. Auditory brainstem and middle latency responses (ABR and MLR respectively) were carried out before and after 6, 12 and 24 months surgical treatment. The volume and longitude of temporo-mesial resected structures were estimated on magnetic resonance images taken 6 months after surgery. Before the intervention the patients showed a significant delay of latency in waves III, V, Pa and Nb, with an increase in duration of I-V interval in comparison with healthy subjects (Mann-Whitney U-test, p < 0.05). After resection, additional significant differences in waves I and Na latency were observed. Na and Pa waveforms showed a tendency to increase in amplitude, which became statistically significant 12 months after surgery for right hemisphere lobectomized patients in the midline electrode, and in Pa waveform for all patients in the temporal electrodes ipsilateral to resection (Wilcoxon test, p < 0.05). In general, latency variations of MLR correlated with resection longitude, while changes in amplitude correlated with the volume of the resection in the middle temporal pole and amygdala (Pearson' correlation test, p < 0.05). As a result, we assume that anterior temporal lobectomy provokes functional modifications into the auditory pathway, probably related to an indirect modulation of its activity by the temporo-mesial removed structures. © 2014.

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