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Matsumoto M.,Kobe University | Shigemura K.,Kobe University | Shirakawa T.,Kobe University | Shirakawa T.,International Center for Medical Research and Treatment | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents | Year: 2012

Fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has spread. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between representative FQ, i.e. levofloxacin (LVX), resistance and mutations in the gyrA and parC genes of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates from the urine of urinary tract infection patients and their rapid detection by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). The susceptibility to LVX of 114 clinical isolates was measured and the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) in the gyrA and parC genes of these isolates were sequenced. DHPLC was undertaken to correlate the distinctive chromatograms with their DNA mutation patterns. Among 114 isolates tested, 22 isolates (19.3%) were resistant to LVX. Six amino acid mutations were detected (Thr83Ile, Asp87Tyr and Asp87Asn in gyrA and Ser87Leu, Ser87Trp and Glu91Arg in parC), existing alone or in combination. There were 10 kinds of mutation patterns. The presence of two or more kinds of mutation significantly correlated with LVX resistance compared with the wild-type or a single mutation (P < 0.0001). DHPLC data identified the number of amino acid mutations with reproducibility distinguishable by peak number and profile of the DHPLC chromatogram. In conclusion, two or more mutations in gyrA and parC were significantly related to LVX resistance in P. aeruginosa. DHPLC facilitated the detection of resistant alleles, providing a rapid (5 min per sample), economical (96 samples per run) and reliable technique for characterising LVX resistance in P. aeruginosa. This rapid detection system could forecast LVX resistance by the DHPLC profile. © 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Tanaka Y.,International Center for Medical Research and Treatment | Maniwa Y.,International Center for Medical Research and Treatment | Bermudez V.P.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Doi T.,International Center for Medical Research and Treatment | And 6 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Several reports have revealed the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the development of cancer. Although many SNPs have been investigated, they were tested individually. In this study, nonsynonymous SNPs present in DNA damage response genes were comprehensively analyzed for lung cancer susceptibility. METHODS: The authors selected 37 nonsynonymous SNPs in 23 genes involved in DNA damage repair pathways. Fifty lung adenocarcinoma patients resected at their institution between 2002 and 2005 and 50 individuals without any known history of cancer were recruited for a case-control study. RESULTS: Three variants (XRCC1 194Trp homozygotes, POLδ1 119His homozygotes, and RAD9 239Arg heterozygotes) tended to coassociate with lung cancer risk. The authors analyzed and calculated whether the association between combinations of these 3 SNPs significantly affected the risk of lung cancer. Compared with carriers of either XRCC1 194Trp homozygote or RAD9 239Arg heterozygote variants, noncarriers were at a significantly decreased risk for lung cancer (odds ratio [OR], 0.282; confidence interval [CI], 0.089-0.893). The same results were found for the combination of POLδ1 119His homozygotes and RAD9 239Arg heterozygotes (OR, 0.277; CI, 0.077-0.993). Moreover, compared with carriers that had at least 1 of the 3 variants, noncarriers showed a more significant decrease in risk (OR, 0.263; CI, 0.090-0.767). CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the presence of XRCC1 194Trp homozygote, POLδ1 119His homozygote, and RAD9 239Arg heterozygote variants revealed that their coassociation leads to a significant risk for the development of lung adenocarcinoma. Inclusive analyses of different SNPs were important in this cancer risk study. © 2010 American Cancer Society.

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