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Diwan V.,RD Gardi Medical College | Diwan V.,International Center for Health Research | Diwan V.,Karolinska Institutet | Sabde Y.D.,RD Gardi Medical College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries

Introduction: In low- and middle-income countries such as India, private pharmacies play an important role in medical treatments, offering advice for common illnesses such as diarrhea and respiratory tract infections. There is a need to explore the details of the dispensing practices at the private pharmacies in low- and middle-income countries. Methodology: The present study used simulated client methodology to assess the actual dispensing practices for patients with pediatric diarrhea at private pharmacies in an urban setting of an Indian province. Results: This study identified 164 private pharmacies (84.10%) in the study setting that engaged in the practice of dispensing prescription drugs without prescriptions. Only about 40% asked clients if they had a prescription from a doctor. The average duration of consultations at the pharmacies was 1.3 minutes (range, 0.5–6 minutes). The dispensing of drugs was not in compliance with the recommended guidelines and regulations. The most commonly dispensed drugs were antibiotics (40.24%); of these, quinolones either alone or in combination with imidazoles were the most frequently dispensed. The other commonly dispensed drugs were antimotility drugs (31.10%) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (probiotics; 23.17%). The drugs were dispensed in inappropriate doses due to the absence of indications. Conclusions: Overuse and misuse of all these prescription drugs dispensed by pharmacies pose significant issues, such as resistance, dangerous side effects, and high costs. At the same time, the pharmacies did not dispense recommended drugs such as oral rehydration solution and zinc, which they are authorized to dispense without a prescription. © 2015 Diwan et al. Source

Diwan V.,RD Gardi Medical College | Diwan V.,International Center for Health Research | Diwan V.,Karolinska Institutet | Agnihotri D.,RD Gardi Medical College | Hulth A.,Karolinska Institutet
Global Health Action

Background: Infectious disease surveillance has long been a challenge for countries like India, where 75% of the health care services are private and consist of both formal and informal health care providers. Infectious disease surveillance data are regularly collected from governmental and qualified private facilities, but not from the informal sector. This study describes a mobile-based syndromic surveillance system and its application in a resource-limited setting, collecting data on patients' symptoms from formal and informal health care providers. Design: The study includes three formal and six informal health care providers from two districts of Madhya Pradesh, India. Data collectors were posted in the clinics during the providers' working hours and entered patient information and infectious disease symptoms on the mobile-based syndromic surveillance system. Results: Information on 20,424 patients was collected in the mobile-based surveillance system. The five most common (overlapping) symptoms were fever (48%), cough (38%), body ache (38%), headache (37%), and runny nose (22%). During the same time period, the government's disease surveillance program reported around 22,000 fever cases in one district as awhole. Our data - from a very small fraction of all health care providers - thus highlight an enormous underreporting in the official surveillance data, which we estimate here to capture less than 1% of the fever cases. Additionally, we found that patients from more than 600 villages visited the nine providers included in our study. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that a mobile-based system can be used for disease surveillance from formal and informal providers in resource-limited settings. People who have not used smartphones or even computers previously can, in a short timeframe, be trained to fill out surveillance forms and submit them from the device. Technology, including network connections, works sufficiently for disease surveillance applications in rural parts of India. The data collected may be used to better understand the health-seeking behaviour of those visiting informal providers, as they do not report through any official channels. We also show that the underreporting to the government can be enormous. © 2015 Vishal Diwan et al. Source

Chaturvedi S.,R D Gardi Medical College | Chaturvedi S.,Karolinska Institutet | Ali S.,R D Gardi Medical College | Randive B.,R D Gardi Medical College | And 6 more authors.
Global Health Action

Background: Unsafe abortion contributes to a significant portion of maternal mortality in India. Access to safe abortion care is known to reduce maternal mortality. Availability and distribution of abortion care facilities can influence women's access to these services, especially in rural areas. Objectives: To assess the availability and distribution of abortion care at facilities providing childbirth care in three districts of Madhya Pradesh (MP) province of India. Design: Three socio demographically heterogeneous districts of MP were selected for this study. Facilities conducting at least 10 deliveries a month were surveyed to assess availability and provision of abortion services using UN signal functions for emergency obstetric care. Geographical Information System was used for visualisation of the distribution of facilities. Results: The three districts had 99 facilities that conducted >10 deliveries a month: 74 in public and 25 in private sector. Overall, 48% of facilities reported an ability to provide safe surgical abortion service. Of public centres, 32% reported the ability compared to 100% among private centres while 18% of public centres and 77% of private centres had performed an abortion in the last 3 months. The availability of abortion services was higher at higher facility levels with better equipped and skilled personnel availability, in urban areas and in private sector facilities. Conclusions: Findings showed that availability of safe abortion care is limited especially in rural areas. More emphasis on providing safe abortion services, particularly at primary care level, is important to more significantly dent maternal mortality in India. © 2015 Sarika Chaturvedi et al. Source

Chaturvedi S.,RD Gardi Medical College | Chaturvedi S.,Karolinska Institutet | Randive B.,RD Gardi Medical College | Randive B.,Umea University | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics

Objective To gain insight into the quality of care in facilities implementing the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) cash transfer program in Madhya Pradesh, India, by reviewing the level of documentation in the clinical records of women who delivered. Methods The present retrospective, descriptive study reviewed case records of women who delivered at 73 primary, secondary, and tertiary level facilities in three districts of Madhya Pradesh between 2012 and 2013. Twenty elements of care were assessed encompassing clinical history and admission details, care during delivery and postnatal period, and discharge details. Results A total of 1239 records were reviewed. The extent of documentation varied among the elements assessed - e.g. 24 (1.9%) records documented advice at discharge, 171 (13.8%) documented postnatal blood pressure, 437 (35.3%) documented fetal heart rate, and 1220 (98.5%) documented admission date. The extent of documentation was better at higher level facilities. Conclusion The quality of clinical documentation in the JSY program was found to be unacceptably poor in Madhya Pradesh. Improving staff skills and practices in clinical documentation and record keeping will be required to enable clinical processes to be assessed and quality of care to be improved. © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Sabde Y.,RD Gardi Medical College | Diwan V.,Karolinska Institutet | Diwan V.,RD Gardi Medical College | Diwan V.,International Center for Health Research | And 7 more authors.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

Background: Since 2005, India has implemented a national cash transfer programme, the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), which provides women a cash transfer upon giving birth in an existing public facility. This has resulted in a steep rise in facility births across the country. The early years of the programme saw efforts being made to strengthen the ability of facilities to provide obstetric care. Given that the JSY has been able to draw millions of women into facilities to give birth (there have been more than 50 million beneficiaries thus far), it is important to study the ability of these facilities to provide emergency obstetric care (EmOC), as the functionality of these facilities is critical to improved maternal and neonatal outcomes. We studied the availability and level of provision of EmOC signal functions in public facilities implementing the JSY programme in three districts of Madhya Pradesh (MP) state, central India. These are measured against the World Health Report (WHR) 2005benchmarks. As a comparison, we also study the functionality and contribution of private sector facilities to the provision of EmOC in these districts. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of all healthcare facilities offering intrapartum care was conducted between February 2012 and April 2013. The EmOC signal functions performed in each facility were recorded, as were human resource data and birth numbers for each facility. Results: A total of 152 facilities were surveyed of which 118 were JSY programme facilities. Eighty-six percent of childbirths occurred at programme facilities, two thirds of which occurred at facilities that did not meet standards for the provision basic emergency obstetric care. Of the 29 facilities that could perform caesareans, none could perform all the basic EmOC functions. Programme facilities provided few EmOC signal functions apart from parenteral antibiotic or oxytocic administration. Complicated EmOC provision was found predominantly in non-programme (private) facilities; only one of six facilities able to provide such care was in the public sector and therefore in the JSY programme. Only 13 % of all qualified obstetricians practiced at programme facilities. Conclusions: Given the high proportion of births in public facilities in the state, the JSY programme has an opportunity to contribute to the reduction in maternal and perinatal mortality However, for the programme to have a greater impact on outcomes; EmOC provision must be significantly improved. While private, non-programme facilities have better human resources and perform caesareans, most women in the state give birth under the JSY programme in the public sector. A demand-side programme such as the JSY will only be effective alongside an adequate supply side (i.e., a facility able to provide EmOC). © 2016 Sabde et al. Source

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