International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr

Dhaka, Bangladesh

International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr

Dhaka, Bangladesh
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Persson L.A.,Uppsala University | Persson L.A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Rahman A.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Pena R.,Uppsala University | And 4 more authors.
Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics | Year: 2017

Analysing child mortality may enhance our perspective on global achievements in child survival. We used data from surveillance sites in Bangladesh, Nicaragua and Vietnam and Demographic Health Surveys in Rwanda to explore the development of neonatal and under-five mortality. The mortality curves showed dramatic reductions over time, but child mortality in the four countries peaked during wars and catastrophes and was rapidly reduced by targeted interventions, multisectorial development efforts and community engagement. Conclusion: Lessons learned from these countries may be useful when tackling future challenges, including persistent neonatal deaths, survival inequalities and the consequences of climate change and migration. © 2017 The Authors. Acta Pædiatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Pædiatrica

Chisti M.J.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Shahid A.S.M.S.B.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Shahunja K.M.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Bardhan P.K.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2017

Background: Severely malnourished children aged under five years requiring hospital admission for diarrheal illness frequently develop ileus during hospitalization with often fatal outcomes. However, there is no data on risk factors and outcome of ileus in such children. We intended to evaluate predictive factors for ileus during hospitalization and their outcomes. Methodology/Principal findings: This was a retrospective chart review that enrolled severely malnourished children under five years old with diarrhea, admitted to the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh between April 2011 and August 2012. We used electronic database to have our chart abstraction from previously admitted children in the hospital. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of children with (cases = 45), and without ileus (controls = 261) were compared. Cases were first identified by observation of abnormal bowel sounds on physical examination and confirmed with abdominal radiographs. For this comparison, Chi-square test was used to measure the difference in proportion, Student’s t-test to calculate the difference in mean for normally distributed data and Mann-Whitney test for data that were not normally distributed. Finally, in identifying independent risk factors for ileus, logistical regression analysis was performed. Ileus was defined if a child developed abdominal distension and had hyperactive or sluggish or absent bowel sound and a radiologic evidence of abdominal gas-fluid level during hospitalization. Logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders revealed that the independent risk factors for admission for ileus were reluctance to feed (odds ratio [OR] = 3.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24–8.39, p = 0.02), septic shock (OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 1.247–8.95, p<0.01), and hypokalemia (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.03–3.86, p = 0.04). Mortality was significantly higher in cases compared to controls (22% vs. 8%, p<0.01) in univariate analysis; however, in multivariable regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders such as septic shock, no association was found between ileus and death (OR = 2.05, 95% CI = 0.68–6.14, p = 0.20). In a separate regression analysis model, after adjusting for potential confounders such as ileus, reluctance to feed, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, and blood transfusion, septic shock (OR = 168.84, 95% CI = 19.27–1479.17, p<0.01) emerged as the only independent predictor of death in severely malnourished diarrheal children. Conclusions/Significance: This study suggests that the identification of simple independent admission risk factors for ileus and risk factors for death in hospitalized severely malnourished diarrheal children may prompt clinicians to be more vigilant in managing these conditions, especially in resource-limited settings in order to decrease ileus and ileus-related fatal outcomes in such children. © 2017 Chisti et al.

Afroze F.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Ahmed T.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Sarmin M.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Shahid A.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | And 3 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2017

Background: Although, Shigella encephalopathy, a serious extra-intestinal complication of shigellosis, significantly increases the risks of death, data are very limited on predicting factors particularly related to electrolyte profiles in children below five years of age with Shigella encephalopathy. Our objective was to determine the clinical as well as laboratory predicting factors and outcome of children with Shigella encephalopathy. Methodology/Principal findings: In this unmatched case-control design, children aged 2–59 months having a positive stool culture for Shigella and who had their serum electrolytes been done from July 2012 to June 2015 were studied. Children with Shigella encephalopathy, defined as having abnormal mentation, constituted the cases, and those without encephalopathy constituted the controls. During the study period, we identified a total of 541 children less than five years of age, who had Shigella in their stool culture. Only 139 children fulfilled the study criteria and among them 69 were cases and 70 were controls. The cases more often had fatal outcome compared to the controls (7% vs. 0%, P = 0.02). In logistic regression analysis, the cases were independently associated with shorter duration (1.2 ± 0.4 days) of diarrhea prior to admission, dehydrating diarrhea, sepsis and hyponatremia (p<0.05 for all). Among 139 Shigella isolates, S. flexneri (88/139, 63%) and S. sonnei(34/139, 24%) were the dominant species. S. dysenteriae was not isolated throughout the study period. S.sonnei was more frequently isolated from the cases (24/69, 35%) than the controls (10/70, 14%), whereas the isolation of S. flexneri was comparable between the groups (40/69, 58% vs 48/70, 69%). A total of 94 (67.6%) isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, 84 (60.4%) to ciprofloxacin, 66/138 (48%) to ampicillin, 5 (3.5%) to ceftriaxone, 17 (12.2%) to mecillinum and 35 (25%) to azithromycin. Conclusions/Significance: The case-fatality-rate was significantly higher among the children with Shigella encephalopathy compared to those without encephalopathy. Early identification and aggressive management of simple risk factors for Shigella encephalopathy may help to reduce morbidity and deaths in such children especially in resource-limited settings. © 2017 Afroze et al.

Andrews J.R.,Stanford University | Leung D.T.,University of Utah | Ahmed S.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Malek M.A.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2017

Background: To take advantage of emerging opportunities to reduce morbidity and mortality from diarrheal disease, we need to better understand the determinants of life-threatening severe dehydration (SD) in resource-poor settings. Methodology/findings: We analyzed records of patients admitted with acute diarrheal disease over twenty-two years at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (1993–2014). Patients presenting with and without SD were compared by multivariable logistic regression models, which included socio-demographic factors and pathogens isolated. Generalized additive models evaluated non-linearities between age or household income and SD. Among 55,956 admitted patients, 13,457 (24%) presented with SD. Vibrio cholerae was the most common pathogen isolated (12,405 patients; 22%), and had the strongest association with SD (AOR 4.77; 95% CI: 4.41–5.51); detection of multiple pathogens did not exacerbate SD risk. The highest proportion of severely dehydrated patients presented in a narrow window only 4–12 hours after symptom onset. Risk of presenting with SD increased sharply from zero to ten years of age and remained high throughout adolescence and adulthood. Adult women had a 38% increased odds (AOR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.30–1.46) of SD compared to adult men. The probability of SD increased sharply at low incomes. These findings were consistent across pathogens. Conclusions/significance: There remain underappreciated populations vulnerable to life-threatening diarrheal disease that include adult women and the very poor. In addition to efforts that address diarrheal disease in young children, there is a need to develop interventions for these other high-risk populations that are accessible within 4 hours of symptom onset. © 2017 Andrews et al.

Ferdous F.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Ferdous F.,University of Tsukuba | Das S.K.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Das S.K.,University of Queensland | And 7 more authors.
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2014

Objectives: To determine and compare socio-demographic, nutritional and clinical characteristics of children under five with diarrhoea living in slums with those of children who do not live in slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: From 1993 to 2012, a total of 28 948 under fives children with diarrhoea attended the Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b. Data were extracted from the hospital-based Diarrhoea Disease Surveillance System, which comprised 17 548 under fives children from slum and non-slum areas of the city. Results: Maternal illiteracy [aOR = 1.57; 95% confidence interval (1.36, 1.81), P-value <0.001], paternal illiteracy [1.37 (1.21, 1.56) <0.001], mother's employment [1.59 (1.37, 1.85) <0.001], consumption of untreated water [2.73 (2.26, 3.30) <0.001], use of non-sanitary toilets [3.48 (3.09, 3.93) <0.001], 1st wealth quintile background [3.32 (2.88, 3.84) <0.001], presence of fever [1.14 (1.00, 1.29) 0.047], some or severe dehydration [1.21 (1.06, 1.40) 0.007], stunting [1.14 (1.01, 1.29) 0.030] and infection with Vibrio cholerae [1.21 (1.01, 1.45) 0.039] were significantly associated with slum-dwelling children after controlling for co-variates. Measles immunisation [0.52 (0.47, 0.59) P < 0.001] and vitamin A supplementation rates [0.36 (0.31, 0.41) P < 0.001] amongst children 12-59 months were lower for slum dwellers than other children in univarate analysis only. Conclusions: Slum-dwelling children are more malnourished, have lower immunisation rates (measles vaccination and vitamin A supplementation) and higher rates of measles, are more susceptible to diarrhoeal illness due to V. cholerae and suffer from severe dehydration more often than children from non-slum areas. Improved health and nutrition strategies should give priority to children living in urban slums. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Baker K.K.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Farzana F.D.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Icddr | Ferdous F.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Icddr | Ahmed S.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Icddr | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014

Handwashing practices among caretakers of case and control children < 5 years of age enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study in Mirzapur, Bangladesh were characterized and analyzed for association with moderate-to-severe diarrhea. Soap or detergent ownership was common, yet 48% of case and 47.7% of control caretakers also kept ashes for handwashing, including 36.8% of the wealthiest households. Soap, detergent, and ash were used for multiple hygiene purposes and were kept together at handwashing areas. Caretakers preferred soap for handwashing, but frequently relied on ash, or a detergent/ash mixture, as a low-cost alternative. Moderate-to-severe diarrhea was equally likely for children of caretakers who kept soap versus those who kept ash (matched OR = 0.91; 0.62-1.32). Contact with ash and water reduced concentrations of bacterial enteropathogens, without mechanical scrubbing. Thus, washing hands with ash is a prevalent behavior in Mirzapur and may help diminish transmission of diarrheal pathogens to children. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Khanam F.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Sheikh A.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Sayeed A.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Bhuiyan S.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | And 17 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Rapid and reliable diagnostic assays for enteric (typhoid and paratyphoid) fever are urgently needed. We report the characterization of novel approach utilizing lymphocyte secretions, for diagnosing patients with enteric fever by the TPTest procedure. Methodology: TPTest detects Salmonella-specific IgA responses in lymphocyte culture supernatant. We utilized TPTest in patients with suspected enteric fever, patients with other illnesses, and healthy controls. We also evaluated simplified modifications of TPTest for adaptation in laboratories with limited facilities and equipment. Principal Findings: TPTest was positive in 39 (27 typhoid and 12 paratyphoid A) patients confirmed by blood culture and was negative in 74 healthy individuals. Among 32 individuals with other illnesses, 29 were negative by TPTest. Of 204 individuals with suspected enteric fever who were negative by blood culture, 44 were positive by TPTest and the patients were clinically indistinguishable from patients with confirmed bacteremia, except they were more likely to be under 5 years of age. We evaluated simplifications in TPTest, including showing that lymphocytes could be recovered using lysis buffer or buffy coat method as opposed to centrifugation, that incubation of cells at 37°C did not require supplemental CO2, and that results were available for majority of samples within 24 hours. Positive results by TPTest are transient and revert to negative during convalescence, supporting use of the test in endemic areas. The results can also be read using immunodot blot approach as opposed to ELISA. Since no true gold standard currently exists, we used a number of definitions of true positives and negatives. TPTest had sensitivity of 100% compared to blood culture, and specificity that ranged from 78-97% (73-100, 95% CI), depending on definition of true negative. Conclusion: The TPTest is useful for identification of patients with enteric fever in an endemic area, and additional development of simplified TPTest is warranted. © 2013 Khanam et al.

PubMed | International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr and University of Queensland
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Childhood rotavirus diarrhea is still one of the major public health challenges. The present study aimed to determine changing characteristics of rotavirus diarrhea in under-5 children at two periods of time.We enrolled 5,357 under-5 children with rotavirus positive in two different time periods; i) 1993-1997 (n=2,493), and ii) 2008-2012 (n=2,864) considering beginning and ending of two decades. These children were enrolled in the urban Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b.Overall, proportion of rotavirus was about 25% in 1993-97, which was 42% in 2008-12 (68% rise; p<0.001). Significant higher proportion of children were stunted [38% vs. 22%; aOR-1.33 (95% CI-1.09-1.62)], had vomiting [87% vs. 74%; aOR-2.58 (95% CI-2.02-3.28)], fever [10% vs. 8%; aOR-1.31 (95% CI-0.96-1.78)], family members >5 [38% vs. 35%; aOR-1.32 (95% CI-1.10-1.58)] required more intravenous fluid [9% vs. 3%; aOR-4.93 (95% CI-3.19-7.63)], had higher co-infection with Shigella [3% vs. 1%; aOR-3.36 (95% CI-1.61-7.03)], Vibrio cholerae [4% vs. 1%; aOR-3.70 (95% CI-2.12-6.46)]; and ETEC [13% vs. 7%; aOR-2.21 (95% CI-1.65-2.97)]; however, significantly lower proportion of them used sanitary toilets [54% vs. 78%; aOR-0.66 (95% CI-0.54-0.80)], boiled drinking water [16% vs. 38%; aOR-0.60 (95% CI-0.48-0.74)], used antimicrobial at home [63% vs. 82%; aOR-0.56 (95% CI-0.46-0.69)] and had some or severe dehydration [18% vs. 34%; aOR-0.15 (95% CI-0.12-0.20)] in 1st observation period compared to that of 2nd.Proportion of episodes of under-5 rotavirus diarrhea increased over the period. Concomitant changes in host, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and co-infections were also observed. Thus, vaccination campaign which is prevailing in private sector should also be introduced in public sector.

PubMed | Murdoch Childrens Research Institute and International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in young children can be challenging, especially in severely malnourished children. There is a critical need for improved diagnostics for children. Thus, we sought to evaluate the performance of a technique that measures antibodies in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) for the diagnosis of TB in severely malnourished children presenting with suspected pneumonia.Children less than 5 years with severe acute malnutrition and radiological features of pneumonia admitted to the Dhaka Hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, were enrolled consecutively following informed written consent. In addition to clinical and radiological assessment, samples taken for TB diagnosis included gastric lavage fluid and induced sputum for microbiological confirmation. ALS was measured from venous blood, and results were evaluated in children classified as confirmed, non-confirmed TB or not TB.Among 224 children who had ALS analysis, 12 (5.4%) children had microbiologically confirmed TB, a further 41 (18%) had clinically diagnosed non-confirmed TB and the remaining 168 (75%) were considered not to have TB. ALS was positive in 89 (40%) and negative in 85 (39%) of children, with a large number (47 or 21%) reported as borderline. These proportions were similar between the three diagnostic groups. The sensitivity and specificity of ALS when comparing Confirmed TB to Not TB was only 67% (95% CI: 31-91%) and 51% (95% CI: 42-60%), respectively.Our data suggest that ALS is not sufficiently accurate to improve the diagnosis of TB in children with severe malnutrition.

PubMed | International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr and Makerere University
Type: | Journal: Health research policy and systems | Year: 2015

In striving to contribute towards improved health outcomes, health research institutions generate and accumulate huge volumes of relevant but often underutilized data. This study explores activities undertaken by researchers from the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), an international research institution that promotes the utilization of their findings in the policymaking processes in Bangladesh.The study used an exploratory case study design and employed qualitative methods to explore activities implemented to promote research utilization and the extent to which researchers felt that their findings contributed to the policymaking process. Data were collected between September and December 2011 through key informant interviews, focus group discussions with study investigators, and database and document reviews. We reviewed findings from 19 reproductive health studies conducted and completed by icddr,b researchers between 2001 and 2011. We interviewed 21 key informants, including 13 researchers, two policy makers, and six programme implementers. Data were entered into Microsoft Word and analyzed manually following a thematic framework approach. Following the World Health Organization/Turning Research into Practice (WHO/TRIP) framework, three case studies of how research findings were utilized in the policymaking processes in Bangladesh were documented.Activities implemented to promote research utilization included conducting dissemination workshops, publishing scientific papers, developing policy briefs, providing technical assistance to policymakers and programme implementers, holding one-on-one meetings, and joining advocacy networks. The majority of the researchers (12 of 13) reported that their study findings were utilized to influence policymaking processes at different levels. However, some researchers reported being unaware of whether and how their findings were utilized. As regards actual utilization of research findings, the evidence from the three case studies indicate that research findings can be utilized instrumentally, conceptually and symbolically, and at different stages within the policymaking process, including agenda setting and policy formulation and implementation.The results show that research findings from icddr,b were promoted and utilized in health policymaking processes in Bangladesh using a variety of utilization approaches. These results suggest a need for using multiple approaches to promote utilization of research findings in health policymaking processes.

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