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Walugembe D.R.,Makerere University | Walugembe D.R.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Kiwanuka S.N.,Makerere University | Matovu J.K.B.,Makerere University | And 2 more authors.
Health Research Policy and Systems

Background: In striving to contribute towards improved health outcomes, health research institutions generate and accumulate huge volumes of relevant but often underutilized data. This study explores activities undertaken by researchers from the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), an international research institution that promotes the utilization of their findings in the policymaking processes in Bangladesh. Methods: The study used an exploratory case study design and employed qualitative methods to explore activities implemented to promote research utilization and the extent to which researchers felt that their findings contributed to the policymaking process. Data were collected between September and December 2011 through key informant interviews, focus group discussions with study investigators, and database and document reviews. We reviewed findings from 19 reproductive health studies conducted and completed by icddr,b researchers between 2001 and 2011. We interviewed 21 key informants, including 13 researchers, two policy makers, and six programme implementers. Data were entered into Microsoft Word and analyzed manually following a thematic framework approach. Following the World Health Organization/Turning Research into Practice (WHO/TRIP) framework, three case studies of how research findings were utilized in the policymaking processes in Bangladesh were documented. Results: Activities implemented to promote research utilization included conducting dissemination workshops, publishing scientific papers, developing policy briefs, providing technical assistance to policymakers and programme implementers, holding one-on-one meetings, and joining advocacy networks. The majority of the researchers (12 of 13) reported that their study findings were utilized to influence policymaking processes at different levels. However, some researchers reported being unaware of whether and how their findings were utilized. As regards actual utilization of research findings, the evidence from the three case studies indicate that research findings can be utilized instrumentally, conceptually and symbolically, and at different stages within the policymaking process, including agenda setting and policy formulation and implementation. Conclusions: The results show that research findings from icddr,b were promoted and utilized in health policymaking processes in Bangladesh using a variety of utilization approaches. These results suggest a need for using multiple approaches to promote utilization of research findings in health policymaking processes. © 2015 Walugembe et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source

Ferdous F.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Ferdous F.,University of Tsukuba | Das S.K.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Das S.K.,University of Queensland | And 7 more authors.
Tropical Medicine and International Health

Objectives: To determine and compare socio-demographic, nutritional and clinical characteristics of children under five with diarrhoea living in slums with those of children who do not live in slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: From 1993 to 2012, a total of 28 948 under fives children with diarrhoea attended the Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b. Data were extracted from the hospital-based Diarrhoea Disease Surveillance System, which comprised 17 548 under fives children from slum and non-slum areas of the city. Results: Maternal illiteracy [aOR = 1.57; 95% confidence interval (1.36, 1.81), P-value <0.001], paternal illiteracy [1.37 (1.21, 1.56) <0.001], mother's employment [1.59 (1.37, 1.85) <0.001], consumption of untreated water [2.73 (2.26, 3.30) <0.001], use of non-sanitary toilets [3.48 (3.09, 3.93) <0.001], 1st wealth quintile background [3.32 (2.88, 3.84) <0.001], presence of fever [1.14 (1.00, 1.29) 0.047], some or severe dehydration [1.21 (1.06, 1.40) 0.007], stunting [1.14 (1.01, 1.29) 0.030] and infection with Vibrio cholerae [1.21 (1.01, 1.45) 0.039] were significantly associated with slum-dwelling children after controlling for co-variates. Measles immunisation [0.52 (0.47, 0.59) P < 0.001] and vitamin A supplementation rates [0.36 (0.31, 0.41) P < 0.001] amongst children 12-59 months were lower for slum dwellers than other children in univarate analysis only. Conclusions: Slum-dwelling children are more malnourished, have lower immunisation rates (measles vaccination and vitamin A supplementation) and higher rates of measles, are more susceptible to diarrhoeal illness due to V. cholerae and suffer from severe dehydration more often than children from non-slum areas. Improved health and nutrition strategies should give priority to children living in urban slums. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Chisti M.J.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Chisti M.J.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Salam M.A.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Raqib R.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | And 8 more authors.

Background: The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in young children can be challenging, especially in severely malnourished children. There is a critical need for improved diagnostics for children. Thus, we sought to evaluate the performance of a technique that measures antibodies in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) for the diagnosis of TB in severely malnourished children presenting with suspected pneumonia. Methods: Children less than 5 years with severe acute malnutrition and radiological features of pneumonia admitted to the Dhaka Hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, were enrolled consecutively following informed written consent. In addition to clinical and radiological assessment, samples taken for TB diagnosis included gastric lavage fluid and induced sputum for microbiological confirmation. ALS was measured from venous blood, and results were evaluated in children classified as "confirmed", "non-confirmed TB" or "not TB". Results: Among 224 children who had ALS analysis, 12 (5.4%) children had microbiologically "confirmed TB", a further 41 (18%) had clinically diagnosed "non-confirmed TB" and the remaining 168 (75%) were considered not to have TB. ALS was positive in 89 (40%) and negative in 85 (39%) of children, with a large number (47 or 21%) reported as "borderline". These proportions were similar between the three diagnostic groups. The sensitivity and specificity of ALS when comparing "Confirmed TB" to "Not TB" was only 67% (95% CI: 31-91%) and 51% (95% CI: 42-60%), respectively. Conclusions and Significance: Our data suggest that ALS is not sufficiently accurate to improve the diagnosis of TB in children with severe malnutrition. © 2015 Chisti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Bi Q.,Johns Hopkins University | Azman A.S.,Johns Hopkins University | Satter S.M.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Khan A.I.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Close interpersonal contact likely drives spatial clustering of cases of cholera and diarrhea, but spatial clustering of risk factors may also drive this pattern. Few studies have focused specifically on how exposures for disease cluster at small spatial scales. Improving our understanding of the micro-scale clustering of risk factors for cholera may help to target interventions and power studies with cluster designs. We selected sets of spatially matched households (matched-sets) near cholera case households between April and October 2013 in a cholera endemic urban neighborhood of Tongi Township in Bangladesh. We collected data on exposures to suspected cholera risk factors at the household and individual level. We used intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) to characterize clustering of exposures within matched-sets and households, and assessed if clustering depended on the geographical extent of the matched-sets. Clustering over larger spatial scales was explored by assessing the relationship between matched-sets. We also explored whether different exposures tended to appear together in individuals, households, and matched-sets. Household level exposures, including: drinking municipal supplied water (ICC = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.96, 0.98), type of latrine (ICC = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.71, 1.00), and intermittent access to drinking water (ICC = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.87, 1.00) exhibited strong clustering within matched-sets. As the geographic extent of matched-sets increased, the concordance of exposures within matched-sets decreased. Concordance between matched-sets of exposures related to water supply was elevated at distances of up to approximately 400 meters. Household level hygiene practices were correlated with infrastructure shown to increase cholera risk. Co-occurrence of different individual level exposures appeared to mostly reflect the differing domestic roles of study participants. Strong spatial clustering of exposures at a small spatial scale in a cholera endemic population suggests a possible role for highly targeted interventions. Studies with cluster designs in areas with strong spatial clustering of exposures should increase sample size to account for the correlation of these exposures. © 2016 Bi et al. Source

Baker K.K.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Farzana F.D.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Ferdous F.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | Ahmed S.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research icddr | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Handwashing practices among caretakers of case and control children < 5 years of age enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study in Mirzapur, Bangladesh were characterized and analyzed for association with moderate-to-severe diarrhea. Soap or detergent ownership was common, yet 48% of case and 47.7% of control caretakers also kept ashes for handwashing, including 36.8% of the wealthiest households. Soap, detergent, and ash were used for multiple hygiene purposes and were kept together at handwashing areas. Caretakers preferred soap for handwashing, but frequently relied on ash, or a detergent/ash mixture, as a low-cost alternative. Moderate-to-severe diarrhea was equally likely for children of caretakers who kept soap versus those who kept ash (matched OR = 0.91; 0.62-1.32). Contact with ash and water reduced concentrations of bacterial enteropathogens, without mechanical scrubbing. Thus, washing hands with ash is a prevalent behavior in Mirzapur and may help diminish transmission of diarrheal pathogens to children. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

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