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Petri W.A.,University of Virginia | Haque R.,The International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research
Handbook of Clinical Neurology | Year: 2013

Brain abscess due to Entamoeba histolytica is most commonly seen in a small percentage of patients who also have an amebic liver abscess. The typical patient is a young man who after treatment for liver abscess with apparent improvement develops symptoms and signs of central nervous system involvement. The average age of the patient is 30 years, and common presentations include headache, vomiting, and altered mental status. Signs of amebic brain abscess include most commonly meningeal signs, facial nerve (VII) palsy, motor paralysis, and seizure. Most patients have abnormal cerebrospinal fluid although there is no special or characteristic abnormality. Diagnosis is by serology and PCR of brain abscess aspirate or CSF and treatment is with metronidazole. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Naylor C.,University of Virginia | Lu M.,University of Virginia | Haque R.,The International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | Mondal D.,The International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | And 16 more authors.
EBioMedicine | Year: 2015

Background: Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a subclinical enteric condition found in low-income countries that is characterized by intestinal inflammation, reduced intestinal absorption, and gut barrier dysfunction. We aimed to assess if EE impairs the success of oral polio and rotavirus vaccines in infants in Bangladesh. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of 700 infants from an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh from May 2011 to November 2014. Infants were enrolled in the first week of life and followed to age one year through biweekly home visits with EPI vaccines administered and growth monitored. EE was operationally defied as enteric inflammation measured by any one of the fecal biomarkers reg1B, alpha-1-antitrypsin, MPO, calprotectin, or neopterin. Oral polio vaccine success was evaluated by immunogenicity, and rotavirus vaccine response was evaluated by immunogenicity and protection from disease. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01375647. Findings: EE was present in greater than 80% of infants by 12 weeks of age. Oral poliovirus and rotavirus vaccines failed in 20.2% and 68.5% of the infants respectively, and 28.6% were malnourished (HAZ < -2) at one year of age. In contrast, 0%, 9.0%, 7.9% and 3.8% of infants lacked protective levels of antibody from tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, diphtheria and measles vaccines respectively. EE was negatively associated with oral polio and rotavirus response but not parenteral vaccine immunogenicity. Biomarkers of systemic inflammation and measures of maternal health were additionally predictive of both oral vaccine failure and malnutrition. The selected biomarkers from multivariable analysis accounted for 46.3% variation in delta HAZ. 24% of Rotarix® IgA positive individuals can be attributed to the selected biomarkers. Interpretation: EE as well as systemic inflammation and poor maternal health were associated with oral but not parenteral vaccine underperformance and risk for future growth faltering. These results offer a potential explanation for the burden of these problems in low-income problems, allow early identification of infants at risk, and suggest pathways for intervention. Funding: The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1017093). © 2015 The Authors.

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