International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease and Research

Bangladesh, Bangladesh

International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease and Research

Bangladesh, Bangladesh
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Rahim M.A.,National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine NIPSOM | Azad Khan A.K.,Bangladesh Institute Of Res And Rehabilitation In Diabetes | Nahar Q.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease and Research | Ali S.M.K.,University of Dhaka | Hussain A.,University of Oslo
Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin | Year: 2010

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rapidly rising all over the world at an alarming rate. Over the past 30 years, the increase in prevalence is rising exponentially in South Asian region, data suggest a three fold increase (from 2.0 to 7.0%) in the urbanizing population of Bangladesh within 5 years. However, the prevalence of various degrees of glucose intolerance i.e. type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose considered vital for prevention are still unknown in this population. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with their demographic and anthropometric characteristics in a reasonable large sample compare to other studies conducted in Bangladesh. A random sample of 5000 rural population aged ≥ 20 years was included in this cross sectional study. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level was measured from 3981 individuals and 2-hr blood glucose (BG) was done on 3954 subjects, excluding known diabetic cases (n= 27). Height, weight, waist and hip circumference including blood pressure and demographic information was also collected. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and newly detected type 2 diabetes (T2DM) were 1.3%, 2.0% and 7.0% respectively. IFG, IGT, IFG+IGT were more prevalent in females than males. Age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were higher in glucose-intolerant subjects than in normal glucose tolerant (NGT) group. FBG and 2-hr BG values were correlated in NGT and DM subjects. Our data suggest that estimation of FBG value identifies more people with diabetes compared to 2-hr BG estimation. These findings need to be further examined in other settings with urban and rural populations for the justification of FBG for screening of diabetes in Bangladeshi population for development of intervention strategy for the prevention and management of abnormal glucose tolerance. The significance of IFG as a precursor of diabetes and CVD will become evident only from longitudinal studies in different ethnic groups.


Saha S.K.,Dhaka Shishu Children Hospital | Al Emran H.M.,Dhaka Shishu Children Hospital | Hossain B.,Dhaka Shishu Children Hospital | Darmstadt G.L.,Johns Hopkins University | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of meningitis in countries where pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) targeting commonly occurring serotypes are not routinely used. However, effectiveness of PCV would be jeopardized by emergence of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) caused by serotypes which are not included in PCV. Systematic hospital based surveillance in Bangladesh was established and progressively improved to determine the pathogens causing childhood sepsis and meningitis. This also provided the foundation for determining the spectrum of serotypes causing IPD. This article reports an unprecedented upsurge of serotype 2, an uncommon pneumococcal serotype, without any known intervention. Methods and Findings: Cases with suspected IPD had blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from the beginning of 2001 till 2009. Pneumococcal serotypes were determined by capsular swelling of isolates or PCR of culture-negative CSF specimens. Multicenter national surveillance, expanded from 2004, identified 45,437 patients with suspected bacteremia who were blood cultured and 10,618 suspected meningitis cases who had a lumber puncture. Pneumococcus accounted for 230 culture positive cases of meningitis in children <5 years. Serotype-2 was the leading cause of pneumococcal meningitis, accounting for 20.4% (45/221; 95% CI 15%-26%) of cases. Ninety eight percent (45/46) of these serotype-2 strains were isolated from meningitis cases, yielding the highest serotype-specific odds ratio for meningitis (29.6; 95% CI 3.4-256.3). The serotype-2 strains had three closely related pulsed field gel electrophoresis types. Conclusions: S. pneumoniae serotype-2 was found to possess an unusually high potential for causing meningitis and was the leading serotype-specific cause of childhood meningitis in Bangladesh over the past decade. Persisting disease occurrence or progressive spread would represent a major potential infection threat since serotype-2 is not included in PCVs currently licensed or under development. © 2012 Saha et al.


Afrad M.H.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease and Research | Matthijnssens J.,Rega Institute for Medical Research | Afroz S.F.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease and Research | Rudra P.,North South University | And 6 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) have been a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in Bangladesh, mainly in children below the age of five. At the icddr,b, RVA strains collection and characterization dates back for more than 20years. This sample collection was used to study the molecular evolution of the VP7 gene of G1, G2 and G9 RVA strains, which have been circulating in Bangladesh for most of this study period. The evolutionary rates (95% HPD) for G1, G2 and G9 were calculated to be 0.93×10- 3 (0.68-1.18), 1.45×10- 3 (1.12-1.78) and 1.07×10- 3 (0.78-1.39), respectively, which is in line with previous data for the RVA VP7 outer capsid protein, which is under strong negative selective pressure. Bayesian analyses revealed that for the G1 and G2 genotypes, one or multiple lineages co-circulated for one or a few seasons, frequently followed by replacement with genetically different lineages. This can be explained by the existence of a large variety of G1 and G2 RVA lineages and the rapid dissemination of different lineages across the globe. In contrast, circulating G9 lineages were rather closely related to each other across the study period and they were usually derived from variants circulating in the previous season(s). This is consistent with the fact that G9 RVAs have circulated in the human population for less than 20years, and therefore their genetic diversity is much smaller, not resulting in the replacement of circulating G9 strains by highly divergent G9 lineages from abroad. Such different evolutionary dynamics for different RVA genotypes may alter their response to the selective pressure that might be exerted by the introduction of RVA vaccines and therefore a continued close monitoring is warranted. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | North South University, International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease and Research, Rega Institute for Medical Research and University of Dhaka
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2014

Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) have been a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in Bangladesh, mainly in children below the age of five. At the icddr,b, RVA strains collection and characterization dates back for more than 20 years. This sample collection was used to study the molecular evolution of the VP7 gene of G1, G2 and G9 RVA strains, which have been circulating in Bangladesh for most of this study period. The evolutionary rates (95% HPD) for G1, G2 and G9 were calculated to be 0.9310(-3) (0.68-1.18), 1.4510(-3) (1.12-1.78) and 1.0710(-3) (0.78-1.39), respectively, which is in line with previous data for the RVA VP7 outer capsid protein, which is under strong negative selective pressure. Bayesian analyses revealed that for the G1 and G2 genotypes, one or multiple lineages co-circulated for one or a few seasons, frequently followed by replacement with genetically different lineages. This can be explained by the existence of a large variety of G1 and G2 RVA lineages and the rapid dissemination of different lineages across the globe. In contrast, circulating G9 lineages were rather closely related to each other across the study period and they were usually derived from variants circulating in the previous season(s). This is consistent with the fact that G9 RVAs have circulated in the human population for less than 20 years, and therefore their genetic diversity is much smaller, not resulting in the replacement of circulating G9 strains by highly divergent G9 lineages from abroad. Such different evolutionary dynamics for different RVA genotypes may alter their response to the selective pressure that might be exerted by the introduction of RVA vaccines and therefore a continued close monitoring is warranted.

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