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Zhang Y.,Battelle | Pohl J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Brooks W.A.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2015

Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) share virologic and epidemiologic features and cause clinically similar respiratory illness predominantly in young children. In a previous study of acute febrile respiratory illness in Bangladesh, we tested paired serum specimens from 852 children presenting fever and cough for diagnostic increases in titers of antibody to hRSV and hMPV by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Unexpectedly, of 93 serum pairs that showed a>4-fold increase in titers of antibody to hRSV, 24 (25.8%) showed a concurrent increase in titers of antibody to hMPV; of 91 pairs showing an increase to hMPV, 13 (14.3%) showed a concurrent increase to hRSV. We speculated that common antigens shared by these viruses explain this finding. Since the nucleocapsid (N) proteins of these viruses show the greatest sequence homology, we tested hyperimmune antisera prepared for each virus against baculovirus-expressed recombinant N (recN) proteins for potential cross-reactivity. The antisera were reciprocally reactive with both proteins. To localize common antigenic regions, we first expressed the carboxy domain of the hMPV N protein that was the most highly conserved region within the hRSV N protein. Although reciprocally reactive with antisera by Western blotting, this truncated protein did not react with hMPV IgG-positive human sera by EIA. Using 5 synthetic peptides that spanned the amino-terminal portion of the hMPV N protein, we identified a single peptide that was cross-reactive with human sera positive for either virus. Antiserum prepared for this peptide was reactive with recN proteins of both viruses, indicating that a common immunoreactive site exists in this region. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Singh S.P.,Banaras Hindu University | Hirve S.,Hospital Research Center | Huda M.M.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | Banjara M.R.,Tribhuvan University | And 9 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2011

Background:The VL elimination strategy requires cost-effective tools for case detection and management. This intervention study tests the yield, feasibility and cost of 4 different active case detection (ACD) strategies (camp, index case, incentive and blanket approach) in VL endemic districts of India, Nepal and Bangladesh.Methodology/Principal Findings:First, VL screening (fever more than 14 days, splenomegaly, rK39 test) was performed in camps. This was followed by house to house screening (blanket approach). An analysis of secondary VL cases in the neighborhood of index cases was simulated (index case approach). A second screening round was repeated 4-6 months later. In another sub-district in India and Nepal, health workers received incentives for detecting new VL cases over a 4 month period (incentive approach). This was followed by house screening for undetected cases. A total of 28 new VL cases were identified by blanket approach in the 1st screening round, and used as ACD gold standard. Of these, the camp approach identified 22 (sensitivity 78.6%), index case approach identified 12 (sensitivity - 42.9%), and incentive approach identified 23 new VL cases out of 29 cases detected by the house screening (sensitivity - 79.3%). The effort required to detect a new VL case varied (blanket approach - 1092 households, incentive approach - 978 households; index case approach - 788 households had to be screened). The cost per new case detected varied (camp approach $21 - $661; index case approach $149 - $200; incentive based approach $50 - $543; blanket screening $112 - $629). The 2nd screening round yielded 20 new VL cases. Sixty and nine new PKDL cases were detected in the first and second round respectively.Conclusions/Significance:ACD in the VL elimination campaign has a high yield of new cases at programme costs which vary according to the screening method chosen. Countries need the right mix of approaches according to the epidemiological profile, affordability and organizational feasibility. © 2011 Singh et al. Source


Pelletier D.L.,Cornell University | Frongillo E.A.,University of South Carolina | Gervais S.,Cornell University | Hoey L.,Cornell University | And 5 more authors.
Health Policy and Planning | Year: 2012

Undernutrition is the single largest contributor to the global burden of disease and can be addressed through a number of highly efficacious interventions. Undernutrition generally has not received commensurate attention in policy agendas at global and national levels, however, and implementing these efficacious interventions at a national scale has proven difficult. This paper reports on the findings from studies in Bangladesh, Bolivia, Guatemala, Peru and Vietnam which sought to identify the challenges in the policy process and ways to overcome them, notably with respect to commitment, agenda setting, policy formulation and implementation. Data were collected through participant observation, documents and interviews. Data collection, analysis and synthesis were guided by published conceptual frameworks for understanding malnutrition, commitment, agenda setting and implementation capacities. The experiences in these countries provide several insights for future efforts: (a) high-level political attention to nutrition can be generated in a number of ways, but the generation of political commitment and system commitment requires sustained efforts from policy entrepreneurs and champions; (b) mid-level actors from ministries and external partners had great difficulty translating political windows of opportunity for nutrition into concrete operational plans, due to capacity constraints, differing professional views of undernutrition and disagreements over interventions, ownership, roles and responsibilities; and (c) the pace and quality of implementation was severely constrained in most cases by weaknesses in human and organizational capacities from national to frontline levels. These findings deepen our understanding of the factors that can influence commitment, agenda setting, policy formulation and implementation. They also confirm and extend upon the growing recognition that the heavy investment to identify efficacious nutrition interventions is unlikely to reduce the burden of undernutrition unless or until these systemic capacity constraints are addressed, with an emphasis initially on strategic and management capacities. © 2011 The Author; all rights reserved. Source


Imdad A.,Aga Khan University | Baqui A.H.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | El Arifeen S.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | Cousens S.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Bhutta Z.A.,Aga Khan University
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: There is an increased risk of serious neonatal infection arising through exposure of the umbilical cord to invasive pathogen in home and facility births where hygienic practices are difficult to achieve. The World Health Organization currently recommends 'dry cord care' because of insufficient data in favor of or against topical application of an antiseptic. The primary objective of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the effects of application of chlorhexidine (CHX) to the umbilical cord to children born in low income countries on cord infection (omphalitis) and neonatal mortality. Standardized guidelines of Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) were followed to generate estimates of effectiveness of topical chlorhexidine application to umbilical cord for prevention of sepsis specific mortality, for inclusion in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Methods. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources included Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINHAL and WHO international clinical trials registry. Only randomized trials were included. Studies of children in hospital settings were excluded. The comparison group received no application to the umbilical cord (dry cord care), no intervention, or a non-CHX intervention. Primary outcomes were omphalitis and all-cause neonatal mortality. Results: There were three cluster-randomised community trials (total participants 54,624) conducted in Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan that assessed impact of CHX application to the newborn umbilical cord for prevention of cord infection and mortality. Application of any CHX to the umbilical cord of the newborn led to a 23% reduction in all-cause neonatal mortality in the intervention group compared to control [RR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.63, 0.94; random effects model, I§ssup§2§esup§=50 %]. The reduction in omphalitis ranged from 27 % to 56 % compared to control group depending on severity of infection. Based on CHERG rules, effect size for all-cause mortality was used for inclusion to LiST model as a proxy for sepsis specific mortality. Conclusions: Application of CHX to newborn umbilical cord can significantly reduce incidence of umbilical cord infection and all-cause mortality among home births in community settings. This inexpensive and simple intervention can save a significant number of newborn lives in developing countries. © 2013Imdad et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Roess A.A.,George Washington University | Ali N.A.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | Akhter A.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | Afroz D.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2013

Antimicrobial drug administration to household livestock may put humans and animals at risk for acquisition of antimicrobial drug-resistant pathogens. To describe animal husbandry practices, including animal healthcareseeking and antimicrobial drug use in rural Bangladesh, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with key informants, including female household members (n = 79), village doctors (n = 10), and pharmaceutical representatives, veterinarians, and government officials (n = 27), and performed observations at animal health clinics (n = 3). Prevalent animal husbandry practices that may put persons at risk for acquisition of pathogens included shared housing and water for animals and humans, antimicrobial drug use for humans and animals, and crowding. Household members reported seeking human and animal healthcare from unlicensed village doctors rather than formal-sector healthcare providers and cited cost and convenience as reasons. Five times more per household was spent on animal than on human healthcare. Strengthening animal and human disease surveillance systems should be continued. Interventions are recommended to provide vulnerable populations with a means of protecting their livelihood and health. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

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