International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research

Dhaka, Bangladesh

International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research

Dhaka, Bangladesh
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Rahman M.J.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | Nizame F.A.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | Unicomb L.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | Luby S.P.,Stanford University
BMC Public Health | Year: 2017

Background: Health programs commonly promote handwashing by drawing attention to potential fecal contamination in the environment. The underlying assumption is that the thought of fecal contamination will result in disgust, and motivate people to wash their hands with soap. However, this has not proven sufficient to achieve high rates of handwashing with soap at key times. We argue that handwashing with soap is influenced by broader range of antecedents, many unrelated to fecal contamination, that indicate to people when and where to wash their hands. This exploratory study aimed to identify and characterize this broader range of handwashing antecedents for use in future handwashing promotion efforts. Methods: First, an initial list of behavioral antecedents was elicited through unstructured interviews, focus group discussions and observation with residents, from a low-income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh, who were also recipients of a handwashing intervention. Then, photographs representing three categories of behavioral antecedents were taken: activities of daily living, visual or tactile sensations, and handwashing-related hardware and activities. Finally, the research team conducted ranking exercises with a new set of participants, from the same area, to assess the perceived importance of each antecedent illustrated by the photographs. The research team probed about perceptions regarding how and why that particular antecedent, represented by the photograph, influences handwashing behavior. Results: After coming out of the bathroom and dirt (moyla) on hands were the two antecedents that ranked highest. In all the categories, intervention-related antecedents (three key times for handwashing which included handwashing after coming out of the bathroom, after cleaning a child's anus and before food preparation; intervention provided items that included handwashing station, soapy water bottle, handwashing reminders from posters and community health provider visits) that were being promoted actively in this community were perceived favorably in the qualitative responses, but did not consistently rank higher than non-intervention items. However, many other antecedents were reported to influence when and where people wash their hands: cutting greasy fish, starting a meal, contact with oil and fat stuck to dishes, oil and lice from hair, sweat, unwashed vegetables, reminders from son and daughter or observing others wash hands, and observing the sunset. Conclusions: Beyond well-recognized antecedents related to fecal contact and dirt on hands, we identified a broader set of antecedents not reported in the literature. Adopting a handwashing promotional strategy to highlight existing antecedents that people themselves have identified as important can help inform the content of an intervention that is more relatable and effective in increasing handwashing practices. © 2017 The Author(s).


Huda T.M.N.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | Unicomb L.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | Johnston R.B.,Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology | Halder A.K.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | And 3 more authors.
Social Science and Medicine | Year: 2012

Started in 2007, the Sanitation Hygiene Education and Water Supply in Bangladesh (SHEWA-B) project aims to improve the hygiene, sanitation and water supply for 20 million people in Bangladesh, and thus reduce disease among this population. This paper assesses the effectiveness of SHEWA-B on changing behaviors and reducing diarrhea and respiratory illness among children < 5 years of age. We assessed behaviors at baseline in 2007 and after 6 months and 18 months by conducting structured observation of handwashing behavior in 500 intervention and 500 control households. In addition we conducted spot checks of water and sanitation facilities in 850 intervention and 850 control households. We also collected monthly data on diarrhea and respiratory illness from 500 intervention and 500 control households from October 2007 to September 2009. Participants washed their hands with soap < 3% of the time around food related events in both intervention and control households at baseline and after 18 months. Washing both hands with soap or ash after cleaning a child's anus increased from 22% to 36%, and no access to a latrine decreased from 10% to 6.8% from baseline to 18 months. The prevalence of diarrhea and respiratory illness, among children <5 years of age were similar in intervention and control communities throughout the study. This large scale sanitation, hygiene and water improvement programme resulted in improvements in a few of its targeted behaviors, but these modest behavior changes have not yet resulted in a measurable reduction in childhood diarrhea and respiratory illness. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Roess A.A.,George Washington University | Ali N.A.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | Akhter A.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | Afroz D.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2013

Antimicrobial drug administration to household livestock may put humans and animals at risk for acquisition of antimicrobial drug-resistant pathogens. To describe animal husbandry practices, including animal healthcareseeking and antimicrobial drug use in rural Bangladesh, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with key informants, including female household members (n = 79), village doctors (n = 10), and pharmaceutical representatives, veterinarians, and government officials (n = 27), and performed observations at animal health clinics (n = 3). Prevalent animal husbandry practices that may put persons at risk for acquisition of pathogens included shared housing and water for animals and humans, antimicrobial drug use for humans and animals, and crowding. Household members reported seeking human and animal healthcare from unlicensed village doctors rather than formal-sector healthcare providers and cited cost and convenience as reasons. Five times more per household was spent on animal than on human healthcare. Strengthening animal and human disease surveillance systems should be continued. Interventions are recommended to provide vulnerable populations with a means of protecting their livelihood and health. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


Imdad A.,Aga Khan University | Baqui A.H.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | El Arifeen S.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | Cousens S.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Bhutta Z.A.,Aga Khan University
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: There is an increased risk of serious neonatal infection arising through exposure of the umbilical cord to invasive pathogen in home and facility births where hygienic practices are difficult to achieve. The World Health Organization currently recommends 'dry cord care' because of insufficient data in favor of or against topical application of an antiseptic. The primary objective of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the effects of application of chlorhexidine (CHX) to the umbilical cord to children born in low income countries on cord infection (omphalitis) and neonatal mortality. Standardized guidelines of Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) were followed to generate estimates of effectiveness of topical chlorhexidine application to umbilical cord for prevention of sepsis specific mortality, for inclusion in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Methods. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources included Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINHAL and WHO international clinical trials registry. Only randomized trials were included. Studies of children in hospital settings were excluded. The comparison group received no application to the umbilical cord (dry cord care), no intervention, or a non-CHX intervention. Primary outcomes were omphalitis and all-cause neonatal mortality. Results: There were three cluster-randomised community trials (total participants 54,624) conducted in Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan that assessed impact of CHX application to the newborn umbilical cord for prevention of cord infection and mortality. Application of any CHX to the umbilical cord of the newborn led to a 23% reduction in all-cause neonatal mortality in the intervention group compared to control [RR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.63, 0.94; random effects model, I§ssup§2§esup§=50 %]. The reduction in omphalitis ranged from 27 % to 56 % compared to control group depending on severity of infection. Based on CHERG rules, effect size for all-cause mortality was used for inclusion to LiST model as a proxy for sepsis specific mortality. Conclusions: Application of CHX to newborn umbilical cord can significantly reduce incidence of umbilical cord infection and all-cause mortality among home births in community settings. This inexpensive and simple intervention can save a significant number of newborn lives in developing countries. © 2013Imdad et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Gurley E.S.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | Zaman R.U.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | Sultana R.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | Bell M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Background. Patients hospitalized in resource-poor health care settings are at increased risk for hospital-acquired respiratory infections due to inadequate infrastructure. Methods. From 1 April 2007 through 31 March 2008, we used a low-cost surveillance strategy to identify new onset of respiratory symptoms in patients hospitalized for >72 h and in health care workers in medicine and pediatric wards at 3 public tertiary care hospitals in Bangladesh. Results. During 46,273 patient-days of observation, we recorded 136 episodes of hospital-acquired respiratory disease, representing 1.7% of all patient hospital admissions; rates by ward ranged from 0.8 to 15.8 cases per 1000 patient-days at risk. We identified 22 clusters of respiratory disease, 3 of which included both patients and health care workers. Of 226 of heath care workers who worked on our surveillance wards, 61 (27%) experienced a respiratory illness during the study period. The cost of surveillance was US$43 per month per ward plus 30 min per day in data collection. Conclusions. Patients on these study wards frequently experienced hospital-acquired respiratory infections, including 1 in every 20 patients hospitalized for >72 h on 1 ward. The surveillance method was useful in calculating rates of hospital-acquired respiratory illness and could be used to enhance capacity to quickly detect outbreaks of respiratory disease in health care facilities where systems for outbreak detection are currently limited and to test interventions to reduce transmission of respiratory pathogens in resource-poor settings. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.


Pelletier D.L.,Cornell University | Frongillo E.A.,University of South Carolina | Gervais S.,Cornell University | Hoey L.,Cornell University | And 5 more authors.
Health Policy and Planning | Year: 2012

Undernutrition is the single largest contributor to the global burden of disease and can be addressed through a number of highly efficacious interventions. Undernutrition generally has not received commensurate attention in policy agendas at global and national levels, however, and implementing these efficacious interventions at a national scale has proven difficult. This paper reports on the findings from studies in Bangladesh, Bolivia, Guatemala, Peru and Vietnam which sought to identify the challenges in the policy process and ways to overcome them, notably with respect to commitment, agenda setting, policy formulation and implementation. Data were collected through participant observation, documents and interviews. Data collection, analysis and synthesis were guided by published conceptual frameworks for understanding malnutrition, commitment, agenda setting and implementation capacities. The experiences in these countries provide several insights for future efforts: (a) high-level political attention to nutrition can be generated in a number of ways, but the generation of political commitment and system commitment requires sustained efforts from policy entrepreneurs and champions; (b) mid-level actors from ministries and external partners had great difficulty translating political windows of opportunity for nutrition into concrete operational plans, due to capacity constraints, differing professional views of undernutrition and disagreements over interventions, ownership, roles and responsibilities; and (c) the pace and quality of implementation was severely constrained in most cases by weaknesses in human and organizational capacities from national to frontline levels. These findings deepen our understanding of the factors that can influence commitment, agenda setting, policy formulation and implementation. They also confirm and extend upon the growing recognition that the heavy investment to identify efficacious nutrition interventions is unlikely to reduce the burden of undernutrition unless or until these systemic capacity constraints are addressed, with an emphasis initially on strategic and management capacities. © 2011 The Author; all rights reserved.


PubMed | Stanford University, International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research and EcoHealth Alliance
Type: Journal Article | Journal: EcoHealth | Year: 2016

We used data on feeding practices and domestic animal health gathered from 207 Bangladeshi villages to identify any association between grazing dropped fruit found on the ground or owners directly feeding bat- or bird-bitten fruit and animal health. We compared mortality and morbidity in domestic animals using a mixed effects model controlling for village clustering, herd size, and proxy measures of household wealth. Thirty percent of household heads reported that their animals grazed on dropped fruit and 20% reported that they actively fed bitten fruit to their domestic herds. Household heads allowing their cattle to graze on dropped fruit were more likely to report an illness within their herd (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.31). Household heads directly feeding goats bitten fruit were more likely to report illness (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.16-1.57) and deaths (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.13-2.4). Reporting of illnesses and deaths among goats rose as the frequency of feeding bitten fruit increased. One possible explanation for this finding is the transmission of bat pathogens to domestic animals via bitten fruit consumption.


PubMed | International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research and Nestlé
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental microbiology | Year: 2016

A T4-like coliphage cocktail was given with different oral doses to healthy Bangladeshi children in a placebo-controlled randomized phase I safety trial. Fecal phage detection was oral dose dependent suggesting passive gut transit of coliphages through the gut. No adverse effects of phage application were seen clinically and by clinical chemistry. Similar results were obtained for a commercial phage preparation (Coliproteus from Microgen/Russia). By 16S rRNA gene sequencing, only a low degree of fecal microbiota conservation was seen in healthy children from Bangladesh who were sampled over a time interval of 7 days suggesting a substantial temporal fluctuation of the fecal microbiota composition. Microbiota variability was not associated with the age of the children or the presence of phage in the stool. Stool microbiota composition of Bangladeshi children resembled that found in children of other regions of the world. Marked variability in fecal microbiota composition was also seen in 71 pediatric diarrhea patients receiving only oral rehydration therapy and in 38 patients receiving coliphage preparations or placebo when sampled 1.2 or 4 days apart respectively. Temporal stability of the gut microbiota should be assessed in case-control studies involving children before associating fecal microbiota composition with health or disease phenotypes.


PubMed | International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research and Nestlé
Type: | Journal: EBioMedicine | Year: 2016

Antibiotic resistance is rising in important bacterial pathogens. Phage therapy (PT), the use of bacterial viruses infecting the pathogen in a species-specific way, is a potential alternative.T4-like coliphages or a commercial Russian coliphage product or placebo was orally given over 4 days to Bangladeshi children hospitalized with acute bacterial diarrhea. Safety of oral phage was assessed clinically and by functional tests; coliphage and Escherichia coli titers and enteropathogens were determined in stool and quantitative diarrhea parameters (stool output, stool frequency) were measured. Stool microbiota was studied by 16S rRNA gene sequencing; the genomes of four fecal Streptococcus isolates were sequenced.No adverse events attributable to oral phage application were observed (primary safety outcome). Fecal coliphage was increased in treated over control children, but the titers did not show substantial intestinal phage replication (secondary microbiology outcome). 60% of the children suffered from a microbiologically proven E. coli diarrhea; the most frequent diagnosis was ETEC infections. Bacterial co-pathogens were also detected. Half of the patients contained phage-susceptible E. coli colonies in the stool. E. coli represented less than 5% of fecal bacteria. Stool ETEC titers showed only a short-lived peak and were otherwise close to the replication threshold determined for T4 phage in vitro. An interim analysis after the enrollment of 120 patients showed no amelioration in quantitative diarrhea parameter by PT over standard care (tertiary clinical outcome). Stool microbiota was characterized by an overgrowth with Streptococcus belonging to the Streptococcus gallolyticus and Streptococcus salivarius species groups, their abundance correlated with quantitative diarrhea outcome, but genome sequencing did not identify virulence genes.Oral coliphages showed a safe gut transit in children, but failed to achieve intestinal amplification and to improve diarrhea outcome, possibly due to insufficient phage coverage and too low E. coli pathogen titers requiring higher oral phage doses. More knowledge is needed on in vivo phage-bacterium interaction and the role of E. coli in childhood diarrhea for successful PT.The study was supported by a grant from Nestl Nutrition and Nestl Health Science. The trial was registered with Identifier NCT00937274 at ClinicalTrials.gov.


Gurley E.S.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | Halder A.K.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | Streatfield P.K.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | Sazzad H.M.S.,International Center for Diarrheal Diseases Research | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Objectives: We estimated the population-based incidence of maternal and neonatal mortality associated with hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Bangladesh. Methods: We analyzed verbal autopsy data from 4 population-based studies in Bangladesh to calculate the maternal and neonatal mortality ratios associated with jaundice during pregnancy. We then reviewed the published literature to estimate the proportion of maternal deaths associated with liver disease during pregnancy that were the result of HEV in hospitals. Results: We found that 19% to 25% of all maternal deaths and 7% to 13% of all neonatal deaths in Bangladesh were associated with jaundice in pregnant women. In the published literature, 58% of deaths in pregnant women with acute liver disease in hospitals were associated with HEV. Conclusions: Jaundice is frequently associated with maternal and neonatal deaths in Bangladesh, and the published literature suggests that HEV may cause many of these deaths. HEV is preventable, and studies to estimate the burden of HEV in endemic countries are urgently needed.

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