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Khan I.A.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research Bangladesh icddrb | Saha A.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research Bangladesh icddrb | Chowdhury F.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research Bangladesh icddrb | Khan A.I.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research Bangladesh icddrb | And 9 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2013

A feasibility study of an oral cholera vaccine was carried out to test strategies to reach high-risk populations in urban Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The study was cluster randomized, with three arms: vaccine, vaccine plus safe water and hand washing practice, and no intervention. High risk people of age one year and above (except pregnant woman) from the two intervention arms received two doses of the oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol™. Vaccination was conducted between 17th February and 16th April 2011, with a minimum interval of fourteen days between two doses. Interpersonal communication preceded vaccination to raise awareness amongst the target population. The number of vaccine doses used, the population vaccinated, left-out, drop out, vaccine wastage and resources required were documented. Fixed outreach site vaccination strategy was adopted as the mode of vaccine delivery. Additionally, mobile vaccination sites and mop-up activities were carried out to reach the target communities. Of the 172,754 target population, 141,839 (82%) and 123,666 (72%) received complete first and second doses of the vaccine, respectively. Dropout rate from the first to the second dose was 13%. Two complete doses were received by 123,661 participants. Vaccine coverage in children was 81%. Coverage was significantly higher in females than in males (77% vs. 66%, P< 0.001). Vaccine wastage for delivering the complete doses was 1.2%. The government provided cold-chain related support at no cost to the project. Costs for two doses of vaccine per-person were US$3.93, of which US$1.63 was spent on delivery. Cost for delivering a single dose was US$0.76. We observed no serious adverse events. Mass vaccination with oral cholera vaccine is feasible for reaching high risk endemic population through the existing national immunization delivery system employed by the government. © 2013 The Authors.


Mohon A.N.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research Bangladesh Icddrb | Elahi R.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research Bangladesh Icddrb | Elahi R.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Podder M.P.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research Bangladesh Icddrb | And 6 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2012

Background: Accurate diagnosis of malaria is an essential prerequisite for proper treatment and drug resistance monitoring. Microscopy is considered the gold standard for malaria diagnosis but has limitations. ELISA, PCR, and Real Time PCR are also used to diagnose malaria in reference laboratories, although their application at the field level is currently not feasible. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) however, have been brought into field operation and widely adopted in recent days. This study evaluates OnSite (Pf/Pan) antigen test, a new RDT introduced by CTK Biotech Inc, USA for malaria diagnosis in a reference setting. Methods. Blood samples were collected from febrile patients referred for malaria diagnosis by clinicians. Subjects were included in this study from two different Upazila Health Complexes (UHCs) situated in two malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. Microscopy and nested PCR were considered the gold standard in this study. OnSite (Pf/Pan) RDT was performed on preserved whole blood samples. Results: In total, 372 febrile subjects were included in this study. Of these subjects, 229 (61.6%) tested positive for Plasmodium infection detected by microscopy and nested PCR. OnSite (Pf/Pan) RDT was 94.2% sensitive (95% CI, 89.3-97.3) and 99.5% specific (95% CI, 97.4-00.0) for Plasmodium falciparum diagnosis and 97.3% sensitive (95% CI, 90.5-99.7) and 98.7% specific (95% CI, 96.6-99.6) for Plasmodium vivax diagnosis. Sensitivity varied with differential parasite count for both P. falciparum and P. vivax. The highest sensitivity was observed in febrile patients with parasitaemia that ranged from 501-1,000 parasites/μL regardless of the Plasmodium species. Conclusion: The new OnSite (Pf/Pan) RDT is both sensitive and specific for symptomatic malaria diagnosis in standard laboratory conditions. © 2012 Mohon et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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