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Mirelman A.J.,University of York | Rose S.,Harvard University | Khan J.A.,Karolinska Institutet | Khan J.A.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research Icddr | And 4 more authors.
Health Policy and Planning | Year: 2016

In low-income countries, a growing proportion of the disease burden is attributable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). There is little knowledge, however, of their impact on wealth, human capital, economic growth or household poverty. This article estimates the risk of being poor after an NCD death in the rural, low-income area of Matlab, Bangladesh. In a matched cohort study, we estimated the 2-year relative risk (RR) of being poor in Matlab households with an NCD death in 2010. Three separate measures of household economic status were used as outcomes: an asset-based index, self-rated household economic condition and total household landholding. Several estimation methods were used including contingency tables, log-binomial regression and regression standardization and machine learning. Households with an NCD death had a large and significant risk of being poor. The unadjusted RR of being poor after death was 1.19, 1.14 and 1.10 for the asset quintile, self-rated condition and landholding outcomes. Adjusting for household and individual level independent variables with log-binomial regression gave RRs of 1.19 [standard error (SE) 0.09], 1.16 (SE 0.07) and 1.14 (SE 0.06), which were found to be exactly the same using regression standardization (SE: 0.09, 0.05, 0.03). Machine learning-based standardization produced slightly smaller RRs though still in the same order of magnitude. The findings show that efforts to address the burden of NCD may also combat household poverty and provide a return beyond improved health. Future work should attempt to disentangle the mechanisms through which economic impacts from an NCD death occur. © 2016 The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.


Bhuiyan M.S.,Monash University | Sayeed M.A.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research Icddr | Khanam F.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research Icddr | Leung D.T.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research Icddr | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014

We assessed interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses via enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) to a number of S. Typhi antigens in samples from humans with S. Typhi bacteremia and typhoid fever in Bangladesh. Compared with responses in healthy endemic zone controls, there were significantly increased IFN-γ responses at the time of clinical presentation (acute phase) and at convalescence 14-28 days later. The majority (80-90%) of IFN-γ expressing T cells were CD4+. We observed a significant increase in interleukin-17 (IL-17) positive CD4 + T cells at convalescent versus acute stage of infection using an intracellular cytokine staining assay. We also found that stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) produced significantly increased levels of a number of cytokines at the convalescent versus acute phase of infection, including IFN-γ, MIP-1β, sCD40L, TNF-β, IL-13, and IL-9. These results suggest that S. Typhi antigens induce a predominantly Th1 response, but that elevations in other cytokines may be modulatory. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


Jamil K.M.,Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research | Haque R.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research icddr | Rahman R.,Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College Hospital SSMCH | Faiz M.A.,Dev Care Foundation | And 10 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: This study was conducted in Bangladeshi patients in an outpatient setting to support registration of Paromomycin Intramuscular Injection (PMIM) as a low-cost treatment option in Bangladesh. Methodology: This Phase IIIb, open-label, multi-center, single-arm trial assessed the efficacy and safety of PMIM administered at 11 mg/kg (paromomycin base) intramuscularly once daily for 21 consecutive days to children and adults with VL in a rural outpatient setting in Bangladesh. Patients ≥5 and ≤55 years were eligible if they had signs and symptoms of VL (intermittent fever, weight loss/decreased appetite, and enlarged spleen), positive rK39 test, and were living in VL-endemic areas. Compliance was the percentage of enrolled patients who received 21 daily injections over no more than 22 days. Efficacy was evaluated by initial clinical response, defined as resolution of fever and reduction of splenomegaly at end of treatment, and final clinical response, defined as the absence of new clinical signs and symptoms of VL 6 months after end of treatment. Safety was assessed by evaluation of adverse events. Principal Findings: A total of 120 subjects (49% pediatric) were enrolled. Treatment compliance was 98.3%. Initial clinical response in the Intent-to-Treat population was 98.3%, and final clinical response 6 months after end of treatment was 94.2%. Of the 119 subjects who received ≥1 dose of PMIM, 28.6% reported at least one adverse event. Injection site pain was the most commonly reported adverse event. Reversible renal impairment and/or hearing loss were reported in 2 subjects. Conclusions/Significance: PMIM was an effective and safe treatment for VL in Bangladesh. The short treatment duration and lower cost of PMIM compared with other treatment options may make this drug a preferred treatment to be investigated as part of a combination therapy regimen. This study supports the registration of PMIM for use in government health facilities in Bangladesh. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01328457 © 2015 Jamil et al.


Rawal L.B.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research icddr | Rawal L.B.,Brac University | Rawal L.B.,Center for Equity and Health Systems | Joarder T.,Brac University | And 5 more authors.
Human Resources for Health | Year: 2015

Introduction: Retention of human resources for health (HRH), particularly physicians and nurses in rural and remote areas, is a major problem in Bangladesh. We reviewed relevant policies and provisions in relation to HRH aiming to develop appropriate rural retention strategies in Bangladesh. Methods: We conducted a document review, thorough search and review of relevant literature published from 1971 through May 2013, key informant interviews with policy elites (health policy makers, managers, researchers, etc.), and a roundtable discussion with key stakeholders and policy makers. We used the World Health Organization's (WHO's) guidelines as an analytical matrix to examine the rural retention policies under 4 domains, i) educational, ii) regulatory, iii) financial, and iv) professional and personal development, and 16 sub-domains. Results: Over the past four decades, Bangladesh has developed and implemented a number of health-related policies and provisions concerning retention of HRH. The district quota system in admissions is in practice to improve geographical representation of the students. Students of special background including children of freedom fighters and tribal population have allocated quotas. In private medical and nursing schools, at least 5% of seats are allocated for scholarships. Medical education has a provision for clinical rotation in rural health facilities. Further, in the public sector, every newly recruited medical doctor must serve at least 2 years at the upazila level. To encourage serving in hard-to-reach areas, particularly in three Hill Tract districts of Chittagong division, the government provides an additional 33% of the basic salary, but not exceeding US$ 38 per month. This amount is not attractive enough, and such provision is absent for those working in other rural areas. Although the government has career development and promotion plans for doctors and nurses, these plans are often not clearly specified and not implemented effectively. Conclusion: The government is committed to address the rural retention problem as shown through the formulation and implementation of related policies and strategies. However, Bangladesh needs more effective policies and provisions designed specifically for attraction, deployment, and retention of HRH in rural areas, and the execution of these policies and provisions must be monitored and evaluated effectively. © 2015 Rawal et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Chowdhury F.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research icddr | Kuchta A.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research icddr | Khan A.I.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research icddr | Faruque A.S.G.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research icddr | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: A hybrid strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor that expresses a classical cholera toxin (CT) emerged in 2001. This hybrid variant rapidly replaced the previous El Tor strain around the world. The global emergence of this variant coincided with anecdotal reports that cholera patients were presenting with more severe dehydration and disease in many locations. Methods: A comparison was made of the severity of disease before and after the emergence of the hybrid strain in cholera patients attending an icddr,b hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Results: It was found that cholera patients presented with more severe dehydration and severe disease in the later period. However, this was also true for all non-cholera patients as well. In addition, in sub-analyses of patients who presented with rotavirus and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), similar results were found. Comparing the two periods for differences in patient characteristics, nutritional status, vaccination status, and income, no plausible cause for patients presenting with more severe disease was identified in the later period. Conclusions: As a shift in severity for both cholera and non-cholera was observed, these results indicate that the altered El Tor strain cannot fully explain the difference in cholera severity before and after 2001. © 2015 The Authors.


PubMed | International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research icddr, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard University
Type: | Journal: International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

A hybrid strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor that expresses a classical cholera toxin (CT) emerged in 2001. This hybrid variant rapidly replaced the previous El Tor strain around the world. The global emergence of this variant coincided with anecdotal reports that cholera patients were presenting with more severe dehydration and disease in many locations.A comparison was made of the severity of disease before and after the emergence of the hybrid strain in cholera patients attending an icddr,b hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh.It was found that cholera patients presented with more severe dehydration and severe disease in the later period. However, this was also true for all non-cholera patients as well. In addition, in sub-analyses of patients who presented with rotavirus and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), similar results were found. Comparing the two periods for differences in patient characteristics, nutritional status, vaccination status, and income, no plausible cause for patients presenting with more severe disease was identified in the later period.As a shift in severity for both cholera and non-cholera was observed, these results indicate that the altered El Tor strain cannot fully explain the difference in cholera severity before and after 2001.


Anwar I.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research Icddr | Nababan H.Y.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research Icddr | Mostari S.,Brac University | Rahman A.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research Icddr | Khan J.A.M.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research Icddr
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background and Methods Monitoring use-inequity is important to measure progress in efforts to address healthinequities. Using data from six Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHS), we examine trends, inequities and socio-demographic determinants of use of maternal health care services in Bangladesh between 1991 and 2011. Findings Access to maternal health care services has improved in the last two decades. The adjusted yearly trend was 9.0% (8.6%-9.5%) for any antenatal care (ANC), 11.9%(11.1%-12.7%) for institutional delivery, and 18.9% (17.3%-20.5%) for C-section delivery which is above the WHO recommended rate of 5-15%. Use-inequity was significant for all three indicators but is reducing over time. Between 1991-1994 and 2007-2011 the rich:poor ratio reduced from 3.65 to 1.65 for ANC and from 15.80 to 6.77 for institutional delivery. Between 1995-1998 and 2007-2011, the concentration index reduced from 0.27 (0.25-0.29) to 0.15 (0.14-0.16) for ANC, and from 0.65 (0.60-0.71) to 0.39 (0.37-0.41) for institutional delivery during that period. For use of c-section, the rich:poor ratio reduced from 18.17 to 13.39 and the concentration index from 0.66 (0.57-0.75) to 0.47 (0.45-0.49). In terms of rich:poor differences, there was equity-gain for ANC but not for facility delivery or C-section delivery. All sociodemographic variables were significant predictors of use; of them, maternal education was the most powerful. In addition, the contribution of for-profit private sector is increasingly growing in maternal health. Conclusion Both access and equity are improving in maternal health. We recommend strengthening ongoing health and non-health interventions for the poor. Use-inequity should be monitored using multiple indicators which are incorporated into routine health information systems. Rising C-section rate is alarming and indication of C-sections should be monitored both in private and public sector facilities. © 2015 Anwar et al.


PubMed | International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research icddr and Brac University
Type: | Journal: Human resources for health | Year: 2015

Retention of human resources for health (HRH), particularly physicians and nurses in rural and remote areas, is a major problem in Bangladesh. We reviewed relevant policies and provisions in relation to HRH aiming to develop appropriate rural retention strategies in Bangladesh.We conducted a document review, thorough search and review of relevant literature published from 1971 through May 2013, key informant interviews with policy elites (health policy makers, managers, researchers, etc.), and a roundtable discussion with key stakeholders and policy makers. We used the World Health Organizations (WHOs) guidelines as an analytical matrix to examine the rural retention policies under 4 domains, i) educational, ii) regulatory, iii) financial, and iv) professional and personal development, and 16 sub-domains.Over the past four decades, Bangladesh has developed and implemented a number of health-related policies and provisions concerning retention of HRH. The district quota system in admissions is in practice to improve geographical representation of the students. Students of special background including children of freedom fighters and tribal population have allocated quotas. In private medical and nursing schools, at least 5% of seats are allocated for scholarships. Medical education has a provision for clinical rotation in rural health facilities. Further, in the public sector, every newly recruited medical doctor must serve at least 2 years at the upazila level. To encourage serving in hard-to-reach areas, particularly in three Hill Tract districts of Chittagong division, the government provides an additional 33% of the basic salary, but not exceeding US$ 38 per month. This amount is not attractive enough, and such provision is absent for those working in other rural areas. Although the government has career development and promotion plans for doctors and nurses, these plans are often not clearly specified and not implemented effectively.The government is committed to address the rural retention problem as shown through the formulation and implementation of related policies and strategies. However, Bangladesh needs more effective policies and provisions designed specifically for attraction, deployment, and retention of HRH in rural areas, and the execution of these policies and provisions must be monitored and evaluated effectively.


PubMed | International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research icddr, University of Dhaka and Brac University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal for equity in health | Year: 2016

We explore long-term trends and determinants of socioeconomic inequities in chronic childhood undernutrition measured by stunting among under-five children in Bangladesh. Given that one in three children remain stunted in Bangladesh, the socioeconomic mapping of stunting prevalence may be critical in designing public policies and interventions to eradicate childhood undernutrition.Six rounds of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data are utilized, spanning the period 1996/97 to 2014. Using recognized measures of absolute and relative inequality (namely, absolute and relative difference, concentration curve and index), we quantify trends, and decompose changes in the concentration index to identify factors that best explain observed dynamics.Despite remarkable improvements in average nutritional status over the last two decades, socio-economic inequalities have persisted, and according to some measures, even worsened. For example, expressed as rate-ratios, the relative inequality in under-five stunting increased by 56% and the concentration index more than doubled between 1996/97 and 2014. Decomposition analyses find that wealth and maternal factors such as mothers schooling and short stature are major contributors to observed socio-economic inequalities in child undernutrition and their changes over time.Reflecting on recent success around socioeconomic and gender equity in child mortality, and the weak legacy of nutrition policy in Bangladesh, we suggest that nutrition programming energies be focused specifically on the most disadvantaged and applied at scale to close socioeconomic gaps in stunting prevalence.


PubMed | International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research icddr and Brac University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Monitoring use-inequity is important to measure progress in efforts to address health-inequities. Using data from six Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHS), we examine trends, inequities and socio-demographic determinants of use of maternal health care services in Bangladesh between 1991 and 2011.Access to maternal health care services has improved in the last two decades. The adjusted yearly trend was 9.0% (8.6%-9.5%) for any antenatal care (ANC), 11.9% (11.1%-12.7%) for institutional delivery, and 18.9% (17.3%-20.5%) for C-section delivery which is above the WHO recommended rate of 5-15%. Use-inequity was significant for all three indicators but is reducing over time. Between 1991-1994 and 2007-2011 the rich:poor ratio reduced from 3.65 to 1.65 for ANC and from 15.80 to 6.77 for institutional delivery. Between 1995-1998 and 2007-2011, the concentration index reduced from 0.27 (0.25-0.29) to 0.15 (0.14-0.16) for ANC, and from 0.65 (0.60-0.71) to 0.39 (0.37-0.41) for institutional delivery during that period. For use of c-section, the rich:poor ratio reduced from 18.17 to 13.39 and the concentration index from 0.66 (0.57-0.75) to 0.47 (0.45-0.49). In terms of rich:poor differences, there was equity-gain for ANC but not for facility delivery or C-section delivery. All socio-demographic variables were significant predictors of use; of them, maternal education was the most powerful. In addition, the contribution of for-profit private sector is increasingly growing in maternal health.Both access and equity are improving in maternal health. We recommend strengthening ongoing health and non-health interventions for the poor. Use-inequity should be monitored using multiple indicators which are incorporated into routine health information systems. Rising C-section rate is alarming and indication of C-sections should be monitored both in private and public sector facilities.

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