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Cavaco E.S.,New University of Lisbon | Neves L.A.C.,New University of Lisbon | Casas J.R.,University of Barcelona | Huespe A.H.,International Center for Computational Methods in Engineering
Bridge Maintenance, Safety, Management and Life-Cycle Optimization - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management | Year: 2010

Structural robustness is an emergent concept related to the structural response to damage. At the present time, robustness is not well defined and much controversy still remains around this subject. Even if robustness has seen growing interest as a consequence of catastrophic consequences due to extreme events, the fact is that the concept can also be very useful when considered on more probable exposure scenarios such as deterioration, among others. This paper intends to be a contribution to the definition of structural robustness, especially in the analysis of reinforced concrete structures subjected to corrosion. To achieve this, first of all, several proposed robustness definitions and indicators and misunderstood concepts will be analyzed and compared. From this point and regarding a concept that could be applied to most type of structures and damage scenarios, a robustness definition is proposed. To illustrate the proposed concept, an example of corroded reinforced concrete structures will be analyzed using nonlinear analysis numerical methods based on a continuum strong discontinuities approach and isotropic damage models for concrete. Finally the robustness of the presented example will be assessed. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, London. Source

Cavaco E.S.,New University of Lisbon | Casas J.R.,University of Barcelona | Neves L.A.C.,New University of Lisbon | Huespe A.E.,International Center for Computational Methods in Engineering
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering | Year: 2013

The aim of this work is to provide new contributions in order to define more accurately the structural robustness concept, particularly when applied to corroded reinforced concrete (RC) structures. To fulfil such a task, several robustness indicators are analysed and discussed with special emphasis on structural-performance-based measures. A new robustness definition and a framework are then proposed for its analysis, based on the structural performance lost after damage occurrence. The competence of the proposed methodology is then tested comparing the robustness of two RC foot bridges under corrosion. The damage considered is the longitudinal reinforcement corrosion level, and load carrying capacity is the structural performance evaluated. In order to analyse corrosion effects, a finite element (FE) based on a two-step analysis is adopted. In the first step, a cross-section analysis is performed to capture phenomenons such as expansion of the reinforcement due to the corrosion products accumulation; damage and cracking in the reinforcement surrounding concrete; steel-concrete bond strength degradation; effective reinforcement area reduction. The results obtained are then used to build a 2D structural model, in order to assess the maximum load carrying capacity of the corroded structure. For each foot bridge, robustness is assessed using the proposed methodology. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Ramajo D.,International Center for Computational Methods in Engineering | Zanotti A.,International Center for Computational Methods in Engineering | Nigro N.,International Center for Computational Methods in Engineering
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering | Year: 2011

Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations and experimental steady flow tests (flow discharge, swirl, and tumble) were carried out to study the in-cylinder flow in a commercial four-valve spark ignition engine. The present investigation was aimed at analysing and controlling the generation of macro-vortex structures (swirl and tumble) during the inlet process. A comparative study of the most commonly employed tumble benches along with in-house design was performed, the last showing some advantages with respect to the others. The outcomes from the simulations were in agreement with experimental results. Mainly, the tumble generation rate was in general proportional to the valve lift. However, tumble was reduced drastically at medium valve lift due to a change in the vortex pattern. A stagnation zone was observed between inlet valves. CFD calculations successfully captured this tumble-fall effect, which was related to characteristic changes in the vortex pattern downstream of the inlet valves at medium valve lift. This affects tumble production without affecting the mass flowrate efficiency. Finally, at high valve lifts the tumble production and the vortex pattern were recovered. The capability of the cylinder head to induce swirl, tumble, or combined swirl-tumble by modifying the valve timing or by introducing adjustable flow deflectors was evaluated using CFD. Several valve timing strategies were analysed: some of them produced significant swirl, but introduced high mass flowrate losses. On the other hand, adjustable flow deflectors were shown to be an interesting alternative to induce swirl-tumble at low load and to improve tumble at high load. Source

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