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Rabbani G.,Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies | Rahman S.H.,Jahangirnagar University | Faulkner L.,International Center for Climate Change and Development
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2013

Most climate related hazards in Bangladesh are linked to water. The climate vulnerable poor-the poorest and most marginalized communities living in remote villages along Bangladesh's coastal zone that are vulnerable to climate change impacts and who possess low adaptive capacity are most affected by lack of access to safe water sources. Many climate vulnerable poor households depend on small isolated wetlands (ponds) for daily drinking water needs and other domestic requirements, including cooking, bathing and washing. Similarly, the livelihoods of many of these households also depend on access to ponds due to activities of small-scale irrigation for rice farming, vegetable farming and home gardening. This is particularly true for those poorest and most marginalized communities living in Satkhira, one of the most vulnerable coastal districts in south-west Bangladesh. These households rely on pond water for vegetable farming and home gardening, especially during winter months. However, these pond water sources are highly vulnerable to climate change induced hazards, including flooding, drought, salinity intrusion, cyclone and storm surges, erratic rainfall patterns and variations in temperature. Cyclone Sidr and Cyclone Aila, which hit Bangladesh in 2007 and 2009 respectively, led to a significant number of such ponds being inundated with saline water. This impacted upon and resulted in wide scale implications for climate vulnerable poor households, including reduced availability of safe drinking water, and safe water for health and hygiene practices and livelihood activities. Those households living in remote areas and who are most affected by these climate impacts are dependent on water being supplied through aid, as well as travelling long distances to collect safe water for drinking purposes. © 2013 by the authors.

Khanom T.,International Center for Climate Change and Development
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2016

The Southwest (SW) region of Bangladesh is facing salinity intrusion both environmentally and anthropogenically. In that circumstance, the dominating livelihood agriculture is affected severely including soil and ground water degradation, health problems and long term effect on ecosystem. Study from the Soil Resource Development Institute (SRDI) found that, from 2000 to 2009, saline water intrusion increased up to 15 km north of the coast and in the dry season reached up to 160 km inland, entering into other interior coastal districts as well due to low flow from upstream rivers. In line with that, this article explored local people's experience with salinity intrusion in interior coast of SW region. Along with semi-structured & open ended questionnaire five focus group discussions and eight interviews were conducted to outlines the relationship between food security and salinity intrusion in regards of crop production and examines the impact of salinity on the crop production. The analysis found salinity in both soil and water is favorable for rice cultivation, although yield loss in every year has increased. Community shifted from native to high yield rice varieties to increase production and cope with soil salinity, in turn, the activity increase fertilizer and pesticides usage. Additionally, oilseed, sugarcane and jute cultivation has discontinued for twelve years due to inability to cope with current salinity level. Some other reasons put forward for saline intrusion includes lack of fresh water in the dry season, and saline encroachment from sea through downstream rivers. Through identification of salinity in the study area, the study suggests to measure impacts rigorously and imply necessary adaptation even though the saline level is favorable for rice, to protect interior coast from suffering like exterior coastal districts. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Roberts E.,Kings College London | Huq S.,International Center for Climate Change and Development
International Journal of Global Warming | Year: 2015

This paper chronicles the history of the rise of loss and damage in negotiations under the United Nations Framework on Climate Change and the role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in bringing about this paradigm shift. Over the past two decades, the global climate change regime has shifted from a focus primarily on mitigation, to both mitigation and adaptation and finally to the current era in which loss and damage has emerged as a key fixture on the agenda with the establishment of the Warsaw international mechanism on loss and damage at the 19th Conference of the Parties in November 2013. This shift can be attributed to the realisation that mitigation and adaptation efforts have been insufficient to avoid the impacts of climate change. © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Lu X.,Flowminder Foundation | Lu X.,Karolinska Institutet | Lu X.,National University of Defense Technology | Wrathall D.J.,University of Bonn | And 14 more authors.
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2016

Climate change is likely to drive migration from environmentally stressed areas. However quantifying short and long-term movements across large areas is challenging due to difficulties in the collection of highly spatially and temporally resolved human mobility data. In this study we use two datasets of individual mobility trajectories from six million de-identified mobile phone users in Bangladesh over three months and two years respectively. Using data collected during Cyclone Mahasen, which struck Bangladesh in May 2013, we show first how analyses based on mobile network data can describe important short-term features (hours-weeks) of human mobility during and after extreme weather events, which are extremely hard to quantify using standard survey based research. We then demonstrate how mobile data for the first time allow us to study the relationship between fundamental parameters of migration patterns on a national scale. We concurrently quantify incidence, direction, duration and seasonality of migration episodes in Bangladesh. While we show that changes in the incidence of migration episodes are highly correlated with changes in the duration of migration episodes, the correlation between in- and out-migration between areas is unexpectedly weak. The methodological framework described here provides an important addition to current methods in studies of human migration and climate change. © 2016 The Authors.

Ayers J.,Department of Energy, United Kingdom | Huq S.,International Institute for Environment and Development | Huq S.,International Center for Climate Change and Development | Wright H.,Imperial College London | And 2 more authors.
Climate and Development | Year: 2014

The close linkages between climate change adaptation and development have led to calls for addressing the two issues in an integrated way. ‘Mainstreaming' climate information, policies and measures into ongoing development planning and decision-making has been proposed as one solution, making a more sustainable, effective and efficient use of resources than designing and managing climate policies separately from ongoing activities. But what does mainstreaming look like in practice? This paper reviews the process of mainstreaming in Bangladesh, one of the countries that has made significant progress on adaptation planning and mainstreaming. The paper begins by making the case for mainstreaming, by exploring linkages and trade-offs between adaptation and development and reviewing the literature on mainstreaming. Second, it considers how to implement mainstreaming in practice, reviewing an existing four-step framework. Examining this framework against the plethora of mainstreaming experiences in Bangladesh, the paper considers how the framework can be used as a tool to review progress on mainstreaming in Bangladesh. The paper concludes that while the framework is useful for considering some of the preconditions necessary for mainstreaming, experiences in Bangladesh reflect a much more complex patchwork of processes and stakeholders that need to be taken into consideration in further research. © 2014, © 2014 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.

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