International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases

Chennai, India

International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases

Chennai, India
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Bishi D.K.,National University of Singapore | Bishi D.K.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases | Bishi D.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Mathapati S.,National University of Singapore | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry B | Year: 2013

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based liver tissue engineering on nanofibrous scaffold holds great promise for cell-based therapy in liver injuries and end-stage liver failure treatments. We investigated the hepatic trans-differentiation potential of human MSCs on a biocomposite poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly (ε-caprolactone)/collagen (PLACL/collagen) nanofibrous scaffold. The nanofibrous scaffolds comprised of PLACL, collagen and a PLACL/collagen blend (2:1) were fabricated by electrospinning and also evaluated for fiber morphology, surface wettability, functional groups, porosity and tensile properties. Hepatic trans-differentiation of human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hMSCs) was carried out on these scaffolds over a period of 28 days using sequential induction with hepatogenic growth factors. Hepatogenesis was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cell phenotype tracking dye expression, quantitative expression of hepatic genes, immunofluorescence staining of hepatocyte-specific markers and albumin release. The results proved that the porous PLACL/collagen nanofibrous scaffold supported enhanced hMSC proliferation and hepatic trans-differentiation compared to individual PLACL and collagen scaffolds as well as a monolayer culture on tissue culture plate (TCP). Interestingly, hMSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells on PLACL/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds could aggregate to form functional 'hepatospheres' similar to normal hepatic spheroids. The present study concludes that PLACL/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds are potentially biomimetic and upon sequential induction with hepatogenic growth factors/cytokines, it augments trans-differentiation of hMSCs towards functional hepatosphere formation. Such bioengineered nanofibrous scaffold hepatic construct provides a promising approach for cellular therapy of damaged livers in end-stage liver failure treatments. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


AshokKumar M.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases | Veera Subhashini N.G.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases | Kanthimathi S.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases | SaiBabu R.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Medical Research | Year: 2010

Background and Aims: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) genes are important in pathways of triglyceride metabolism, insulin resistance and adipogenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms of PPARγ Pro12Ala, LPL HindIII and LPL Ser447X influence severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in an Indian population. Methods: PPARγ Pro12Ala, LPL HindIII and LPL Ser447X polymorphisms were genotyped in 414 patients with CAD and matched with 424 controls. The study subjects were inducted after standard diagnostic procedures and analyzed statistically for the association of polymorphisms with clinical characteristics. Results: We found that PPARγ alleles were not associated with CAD among Indians although proline carriers had significantly higher levels of HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.03) among CAD patients. The LPL HindIII also had no significant correlations for CAD or for any clinical characteristics. The Ser447X polymorphism (p = 0.015) influenced lower triglyceride levels among CAD patients with significant associations (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.483-0.915, p = 0.012). This protective effect of the 447X allele was more pronounced among the CAD patients without the risk factor of diabetes (OR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.403-0.907, p = 0.014) along with less progression of a severe atherosclerotic disease. Conclusions: PPARγ and LPL have intractable roles in pathways that lead to CAD, but their gene polymorphisms associate differently. Our results imply a significant correlation of Ser447X polymorphism and its protective effect on Indians against severity of CAD modified by the risk of diabetes, than LPL HindIII and PPARγ Pro12Ala. © 2010 IMSS.


Ashokkumar M.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases | Subhashini N.G.V.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases | Saibabu R.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases | Ramesh A.,University of Madras | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2010

Abstract: Apolipoprotein C3 and apolipoprotien A5 are proteins coded from the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster. Sst I polymorphism on apolipoprotein C3 and -1131C polymorphism of apolipoprotien A5 are key variants involved in triglyceride metabolism and cause a significant cardio-metabolic risk. Here, we have evaluated these two variants for their roles in coronary artery disease in patients of the Indian population. The apolipoprotein gene cluster variants were analysed in 416 angiographically determined coronary artery disease patients and matched 416 controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The characteristics of the study subjects were analyzed statistically for their association with the polymorphisms. The alleles were combined as haplotypes and their combined risks were evaluated. The minor allele genotypes of both apolipoprotein C3 (S2) and apolipoprotien A5 (C) had a significant risk for coronary artery disease. The S2 allele genotyped patients had a significantly increased triglyceride level (P < 0.001) and increased triglycerides were observed among both patient and control CC genotype carriers. We identified the haplotype S2/C with a significant increased risk (P < 0.001) to coronary artery disease with increased levels of circulating triglycerides compared to other haplotypes in patients. We conclude that the variants on apolipoprotein C3 and apolipoprotien A5 modulate serum triglyceride levels and increase the risk of coronary artery disease. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Rayan P.,Griffith University | Verghese S.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases | McDonnell P.A.,Griffith University
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology | Year: 2010

Environmental factors affect the dissemination and distribution of intestinal parasites in human communities. To comprehend the prevalence of parasitic infestation and to examine whether geographical location and age also influence the prevalence of infection, fecal samples from 195 school children (rural = 95; male = 39; female = 56) (urban = 100; male = 60; female = 40) of five age groups ranging from 5 to 11 years in two different socio-economic zones (rural and urban) were screened for specific intestinal parasites using standard histological techniques. Percentage incidences of parasitic species found in fecal wet mounts and concentrates in rural children were Entamoeba coli (25.3%), Giardia lamblia (17.9%), Blastocystis hominis (14.7%), Entamoeba histolytica (4. %), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.1%), Hymenolepis nana (1.1%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (1.1%). Whereas the percentage incidences among urban children were E. coli (26%), A. lumbricoides (21%), B. hominis (18%), G. lamblia (14%), T. trichiura (8%), I. butschlii (4%) and A. duodenale (1%). Such findings may be related to dietary differences, living conditions and the greater use of natural anti-helminthic medicinal plants in rural communities. These results are important for both epidemiological data collection and for correlating dietary differences to intestinal parasitic diseases. Aims: We chose to investigate whether geographical location and age affect the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasites among school children from two separate regions (rural and urban) in areas surrounding, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Settings and Design: A study of the prevalence of parasitic infestations was undertaken among primary school children, in rural and urban communities around Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: Faecal sample collection, direct microscopic techniques, macroscopic examination and concentration techniques for identifying the parasites. Statistical analysis used: Percentage incidences of parasitic species found in faecal wet mounts and concentrates were done instead of statistical analyses. Results: Both macroscopic and microscopic examinations of faecal samples revealed that the overall percentage prevalence of parasite species encountered in rural children were Entamoeba coli (25.3%), G. lamblia (17.9%), B. hominis (14.7%), Entamoeba histolytica (4.2%), I. butschlii (1.1%), H. nana (1.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.1%). The prevalence among urban children were E. coli (26%), A. lumbricoides (21%), B. hominis (18%), G. lamblia (14%), T. trichiura (8%), I. butschlii (4%) and A. duodenale (1%). Overall, comparative significant differences were noted between rural and urban children for E. histolytica (4.2 vs. 14%), G. lamblia (17.9 vs. 14%), A. lumbricoides (1.1 vs. 21%) and T. trichiura (0 vs. 8%), with the major difference being the much higher occurrence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections in urban children. Conclusions: One of the greatest challenges for healthcare professionals is the prevention and treatment of protozoal and helminthic parasitic infections. From our study we conclude that the prevalence of different pathogenic species of amoeba such as Entamoeba histolytica (4.2 vs. 0%) and G. lamblia (17.9 vs. 14%), (P value was equal to 1) was significantly higher among rural children compared to children from urban areas. In contrast, the prevalence of nematodes such as A. lumbricoides (21% vs. 1.1%), T. trichiura (8% vs. 0%) and A. duodenale (1%) was also significantly higher among rural children.


PubMed | International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular biology reports | Year: 2010

Apolipoprotein C3 and apolipoprotien A5 are proteins coded from the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster. Sst I polymorphism on apolipoprotein C3 and -1131C polymorphism of apolipoprotien A5 are key variants involved in triglyceride metabolism and cause a significant cardio-metabolic risk. Here, we have evaluated these two variants for their roles in coronary artery disease in patients of the Indian population. The apolipoprotein gene cluster variants were analysed in 416 angiographically determined coronary artery disease patients and matched 416 controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The characteristics of the study subjects were analyzed statistically for their association with the polymorphisms. The alleles were combined as haplotypes and their combined risks were evaluated. The minor allele genotypes of both apolipoprotein C3 (S2) and apolipoprotien A5 (C) had a significant risk for coronary artery disease. The S2 allele genotyped patients had a significantly increased triglyceride level (P < 0.001) and increased triglycerides were observed among both patient and control CC genotype carriers. We identified the haplotype S2/C with a significant increased risk (P < 0.001) to coronary artery disease with increased levels of circulating triglycerides compared to other haplotypes in patients. We conclude that the variants on apolipoprotein C3 and apolipoprotien A5 modulate serum triglyceride levels and increase the risk of coronary artery disease.

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