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Rayan P.,Griffith University | Verghese S.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases | McDonnell P.A.,Griffith University
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology | Year: 2010

Environmental factors affect the dissemination and distribution of intestinal parasites in human communities. To comprehend the prevalence of parasitic infestation and to examine whether geographical location and age also influence the prevalence of infection, fecal samples from 195 school children (rural = 95; male = 39; female = 56) (urban = 100; male = 60; female = 40) of five age groups ranging from 5 to 11 years in two different socio-economic zones (rural and urban) were screened for specific intestinal parasites using standard histological techniques. Percentage incidences of parasitic species found in fecal wet mounts and concentrates in rural children were Entamoeba coli (25.3%), Giardia lamblia (17.9%), Blastocystis hominis (14.7%), Entamoeba histolytica (4. %), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.1%), Hymenolepis nana (1.1%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (1.1%). Whereas the percentage incidences among urban children were E. coli (26%), A. lumbricoides (21%), B. hominis (18%), G. lamblia (14%), T. trichiura (8%), I. butschlii (4%) and A. duodenale (1%). Such findings may be related to dietary differences, living conditions and the greater use of natural anti-helminthic medicinal plants in rural communities. These results are important for both epidemiological data collection and for correlating dietary differences to intestinal parasitic diseases. Aims: We chose to investigate whether geographical location and age affect the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasites among school children from two separate regions (rural and urban) in areas surrounding, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Settings and Design: A study of the prevalence of parasitic infestations was undertaken among primary school children, in rural and urban communities around Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: Faecal sample collection, direct microscopic techniques, macroscopic examination and concentration techniques for identifying the parasites. Statistical analysis used: Percentage incidences of parasitic species found in faecal wet mounts and concentrates were done instead of statistical analyses. Results: Both macroscopic and microscopic examinations of faecal samples revealed that the overall percentage prevalence of parasite species encountered in rural children were Entamoeba coli (25.3%), G. lamblia (17.9%), B. hominis (14.7%), Entamoeba histolytica (4.2%), I. butschlii (1.1%), H. nana (1.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.1%). The prevalence among urban children were E. coli (26%), A. lumbricoides (21%), B. hominis (18%), G. lamblia (14%), T. trichiura (8%), I. butschlii (4%) and A. duodenale (1%). Overall, comparative significant differences were noted between rural and urban children for E. histolytica (4.2 vs. 14%), G. lamblia (17.9 vs. 14%), A. lumbricoides (1.1 vs. 21%) and T. trichiura (0 vs. 8%), with the major difference being the much higher occurrence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections in urban children. Conclusions: One of the greatest challenges for healthcare professionals is the prevention and treatment of protozoal and helminthic parasitic infections. From our study we conclude that the prevalence of different pathogenic species of amoeba such as Entamoeba histolytica (4.2 vs. 0%) and G. lamblia (17.9 vs. 14%), (P value was equal to 1) was significantly higher among rural children compared to children from urban areas. In contrast, the prevalence of nematodes such as A. lumbricoides (21% vs. 1.1%), T. trichiura (8% vs. 0%) and A. duodenale (1%) was also significantly higher among rural children.

Ali M.M.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases | Arumugam Sarasa B.A.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Year: 2011

The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar of the domesticated silkmoth, Bombyx mori and being a primary producer of silk is an economically important insect. These days the silk is emerging as a resource for solving a broad range of biological problems. The silk (Abresham) is popularly known as Abresham muqriz (muqriz means cut) in Unani medicine. Its cocoons are extensively used as an ingredient of various Unani formulations like Khameer-E- Abresham Sada, Khameere Abresham Hakeem Arshad Wala, Khameere Abresham Ood Mastagi Wala etc. and are used to treat many cardiac and nervous disorders. The hypolipidemic activity of this drug, along with Nepata Hindostana (Badranjboya) and Terminalia Arjuna (Arjan) has been documented. But action of extract of Bombyx mori cocoons as a single drug is not documented. That′s why; it was decided to study its effect on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. The Male New Zealand White rabbits all of 1.5kgs were selected for the study. After stabilization period (2 weeks) the rabbits were divided into 3 groups (Group I - Control, Group II Lesion Control and Group III treated with extract of Bombyx mori silk cocoon). Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis were induced with 1% cholesterol diet. After induction of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis for twelve weeks, Group III rabbits were treated with Bombyx mori for 6 weeks (45 days). A significant decrease in hyperlipidemia was seen within 4 weeks of treatment. Histopathologically, the atherosclerotic plaques showed reduction in size. The third group showed a significant increase in the body weight and also an increase in the HDL cholesterol levels. The study concludes that extract of Bombyx mori cocoons has a significant effect on hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis probably because of its antioxidant and hypolipidemic effect.

AshokKumar M.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases | Veera Subhashini N.G.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases | Kanthimathi S.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases | SaiBabu R.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Medical Research | Year: 2010

Background and Aims: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) genes are important in pathways of triglyceride metabolism, insulin resistance and adipogenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms of PPARγ Pro12Ala, LPL HindIII and LPL Ser447X influence severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in an Indian population. Methods: PPARγ Pro12Ala, LPL HindIII and LPL Ser447X polymorphisms were genotyped in 414 patients with CAD and matched with 424 controls. The study subjects were inducted after standard diagnostic procedures and analyzed statistically for the association of polymorphisms with clinical characteristics. Results: We found that PPARγ alleles were not associated with CAD among Indians although proline carriers had significantly higher levels of HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.03) among CAD patients. The LPL HindIII also had no significant correlations for CAD or for any clinical characteristics. The Ser447X polymorphism (p = 0.015) influenced lower triglyceride levels among CAD patients with significant associations (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.483-0.915, p = 0.012). This protective effect of the 447X allele was more pronounced among the CAD patients without the risk factor of diabetes (OR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.403-0.907, p = 0.014) along with less progression of a severe atherosclerotic disease. Conclusions: PPARγ and LPL have intractable roles in pathways that lead to CAD, but their gene polymorphisms associate differently. Our results imply a significant correlation of Ser447X polymorphism and its protective effect on Indians against severity of CAD modified by the risk of diabetes, than LPL HindIII and PPARγ Pro12Ala. © 2010 IMSS.

Ashokkumar M.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases | Subhashini N.G.V.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases | Saibabu R.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases | Ramesh A.,University of Madras | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2010

Abstract: Apolipoprotein C3 and apolipoprotien A5 are proteins coded from the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster. Sst I polymorphism on apolipoprotein C3 and -1131C polymorphism of apolipoprotien A5 are key variants involved in triglyceride metabolism and cause a significant cardio-metabolic risk. Here, we have evaluated these two variants for their roles in coronary artery disease in patients of the Indian population. The apolipoprotein gene cluster variants were analysed in 416 angiographically determined coronary artery disease patients and matched 416 controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The characteristics of the study subjects were analyzed statistically for their association with the polymorphisms. The alleles were combined as haplotypes and their combined risks were evaluated. The minor allele genotypes of both apolipoprotein C3 (S2) and apolipoprotien A5 (C) had a significant risk for coronary artery disease. The S2 allele genotyped patients had a significantly increased triglyceride level (P < 0.001) and increased triglycerides were observed among both patient and control CC genotype carriers. We identified the haplotype S2/C with a significant increased risk (P < 0.001) to coronary artery disease with increased levels of circulating triglycerides compared to other haplotypes in patients. We conclude that the variants on apolipoprotein C3 and apolipoprotien A5 modulate serum triglyceride levels and increase the risk of coronary artery disease. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Guhathakurta S.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Mathapati S.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases | Bishi D.K.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases | Rallapalli S.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Cherian K.M.,International Center for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Diseases
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals | Year: 2014

Objectives: This study aimed to create a myocardial tissue construct by tissue engineering to repair, replace, and regenerate damaged cardiac tissue.Methods and results: Human cardiac muscles harvested from a homograft heart retrieval system were decellularized followed by coating with electrospun nanofibers to make them amenable to scaffolding. These processed cardiac tissues were nourished in modified media having ischemic cardiac tissue conditioned media in 6 separate experimental variants, and cord blood mononuclear cells were injected into 4 of them. On the 17th day of culture, the nanofiber-coated scaffolds injected with mononuclear cells and/or reinforced by electrical and mechanical forces, started contracting spontaneously at varying rates, while the control remain noncontractile. Histological staining confirmed the pre-culture acellularity as well as post-culture stem cell viability, and revealed expression of troponin I and cardiac myosin. The acellular processed scaffold when implanted into sheep ischemic myocardial apex revealed transformation into sheep myocardium after 4 months of implantation. absp Conclusion: These results provide direct evidence for the re-cellularization of decellularized cardiac tissue grafts reinforced with a polymer nanofiber coating, by human mononuclear cells injection, leading to generation of a tissueengineered myocardial construct. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

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