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Sujatha S.,International Center for Bioresources Management | Joseph B.,International Center for Bioresources Management
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science | Year: 2011

Aim of the present study was planned to assess the biodiversity of the marine environment around the Muttom coastal region and then to isolate and characterized the secondary metabolites from the eleven sponges and screen them for their mosquito larvicidal effect. Due to increasing resistance of the vectors mosquitoes causing diseases of importance in public health, to chemical insecticides, is necessary the searching for alternative control methods, as the use of marine sponges extracts with insecticide activity, owing to its capacity of biodegradation and generation of minor environmental damage. In this work the insecticide activity is evaluated for the mixture of chloroform with methanol extracts of the eleven marine sponges on stadium V instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (L.) in conditions of laboratory (25°C and 75% Relative Humidity). The sponge extracts of Clathria gorgonoids and Callyspongia diffusa was found to be the most effective against A. aegypti larvae showed LC50 values at <50 ppm. A result demonstrates that Ircinia campana extract is most active against two insects, as long as the extract of Sigmadocia carnosa has a higher toxic effect on Aedes aegypti than on Culex quinquefasciatus. Between the sponges Clathria gorgonoids and Callyspongia diffusa were found to be more active towards both larvicidal and insecticidal properties. In view of both these activities, the subsequent sponges Haliclona pigmentifera, Sigmadocia carnosa, Petrosia similes and Ircinia fusca could be used to obtain novel pesticidal molecules. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc. Source


Sujatha S.,International Center for Bioresources Management | Joseph B.,International Center for Bioresources Management
Journal of Entomology | Year: 2011

This research mainly focused the objective is to study the effect of tapioca based oligidic diet and its effect on growth and reproductive parameters in tobacco caterpillar larvae of Spodoptera litura (Fabricious). These results indicated an artificial diet for mass rearing of the tobacco caterpillar Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) from the neonate to adult stage was developed at 27±1°C, 65±5% RH and 16:8 h scoto/photo-phase regime. The impact of a tapioca-based artificial diet on the developmental rate, life history parameters and fertility was examined over five consecutive generations for the Spodoptera litura armyworm Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a highly polyphagous pest of many agricultural crops. The study showed that when fed the tapioca-based artificial diet during larval stage, larval and pupal developmental period, percentage of pupation, pupal weight, emergence rate of male and female, longevity, fecundity and hatching were non-significantly different than that of the control agar-based artificial diet. Moreover, the cost to rear on tapioca-based diet approached 2.13 times less than the cost of rearing on the agar-based artificial diet. The mean biological parameters based on rearing of ten continuous generations showed higher pupation (67.0±3.2), emergence (77.0±5.6) and fecundity (234.2±50.1 eggs) as compared to the most preferred natural food, castor leaf whose respective recorded values are 80, 75, 60% and 480 eggs. The artificial diet developed is suitable for mass rearing S. litura successfully throughout the year for laboratory and field experimentation as well as for commercial production of nuclear polyhedrosis viruses. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc. Source


Joseph B.,International Center for Bioresources Management | Sujatha S.,International Center for Bioresources Management | Amisha J.R.,International Center for Bioresources Management
Research Journal of Medicinal Plant | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to identify the antibacterial and mosquito larvicidal activity of the Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) root extract with five different solvents. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of extraction from Hemidesmus indicus roots on five different solvents activity against the pathogenic and non-pathogenic organisms also larvae of the Culex qinquifasciatus mosquito. H. indicus (L.) is one of the plants used in Ayurveda for several remedies it belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae. The experimental roots were tested for their phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity against twelve human pathogenic bacteria microorganisms using standard disc diffusion method. Moreover, the methanol and petroleum ether extracts were active against most of the tested organisms as they showed potential phytochemical constituents. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were compared with their respective reference antibiotics as Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs). Apart from petroleum ether, all other solvent extracts such as ethanol, methanol, chloroform and aqueous extract showed significant results. Among the 12 bacterial species maximum inhibition zone was 16.00±0.18, 10.65±0.19 and 16.3±0.20 observed the following bacteria such as E. coli, P. mirabilis and S. typhimurium respectively. The larvicidal effect of aqueous extracts of H. indicus roots were tested against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae at the concentrations of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% up to three days also after two days, 100% larval mortality has been observed at 5% concentration of root extract with aqueous solution (dist.water). From this results clearly showed solvent extracts of H. indicus (Linn.) root could be act as an antibacterial as well as larvicidal activity. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc. Source


Sujatha S.,International Center for Bioresources Management | Vidya L.S.,International Center for Bioresources Management | Sumi G.,International Center for Bioresources Management
Journal of Entomology | Year: 2012

Diversity, ubiquity of anti-predator adaptations has an important direct effect of info-chemical based phenomenon of prey and predator as well as prey density. This work explained three agricultural pests having info-chemical cues also influence the predatory efficiency of the reduviid predator of Rhynocoris fuscipes (Fab.). In this context, the aim of this study was to identify the prey-predator interaction with specific chemical cues on biological control agent of Rhynocoris fuscipes treated with three agriculturally important pests. The polyphagous reduviid predator Rhynocoris fuscipes (Fab.) (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) is a potential biocontrol agent for the red cotton bug Dysdercus cingulatus (Fabricius), tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fab.) Lepidoptera: Noctuiidae) and castor pest Achaea Janata (Linn.). The influence of info-chemicals from these three species of groundnut pests on the prey-searching and probing behaviour of the reduviid predator was studied. The water fraction of the mixture of chloroform and methanol extract of A. Janata elicited maximum response in R. fuscipes when compared with S. litura and D. cingulatus. Adults and fifth instars were consumed more time with A. Janata extracts as compared to other instars. Minimum and maximum response was observed in case of S. litura and D. cingulatus extract. Among the five life stages fifth and adult stages of the R. fuscipes predators preferred fifth instar of A. Janata, S. litura where as fourth and fifth nymphal instars were quickly preferred third to fifth instars of D. cingulatus. These findings could be used in the application of R. fuscipes as a biocontrol agent in the management of cotton, castor and groundnut pests. © 2012 Acadamic Journals Inc. Source


Sujatha S.,International Center for Bioresources Management | Joseph B.,International Center for Bioresources Management | Sumi P.S.,International Center for Bioresources Management
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

This study having following objectives such as to study the biology, nutritional indices and mid gut enzymes response with three different botanical insecticides and to determined the nature of insecticidal action was examined by dermal, oral and contact treatments. As an alternative to synthetic ones, plants have been received much attention as a source of pesticidal active secondary metabolites such as phenolics, terpenoids and alkaloids. The effect of water extracts prepared from the leaves of Ipomea carnea (Linn.) Convolvulacea and Pedalium murex (Linn.) Pedaliacea and Adhatoda vasica (Linn.) Acanthacea on the biology, nutritional indices and digestive enzymes of the polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was investigated. Increased larval and pupal mortality and drastically decreased larval growth were recorded in the experimental extracts treated caterpillars. Feeding efficiency and feacal excrement were also greatly affected. The digestive enzymes profiles were decreased by the plant extract treatments. Furthermore, they were facilitating the active and easy proliferation of the chemicals for the subsequent pathogens of larvae. Among the three application methods tested, oral treatment caused the highest toxicity, followed by topical application and contact treatment. From this study clearly revealed about the active secondary metabolites were arrested or restricted the ecdyseal process during the moulting period of experimental pest. These results suggest that the three plant species tested may have potential for use as natural bio-pesticides. © 2010 Knowledgia Review, Malaysia. Source

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