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Bassi F.M.,North Dakota State University | Bassi F.M.,International Center for the Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Kumar A.,North Dakota State University | Zhang Q.,North Dakota State University | And 8 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Since the dawn of wheat cytogenetics, chromosome 3B has been known to harbor a gene(s) that, when removed, causes chromosome desynapsis and gametic sterility. The lack of natural genetic diversity for this gene(s) has prevented any attempt to fine map and further characterize it. Here, gamma radiation treatment was used to create artificial diversity for this locus. A total of 696 radiation hybrid lines were genotyped with a custom mini array of 140 DArT markers, selected to evenly span the whole 3B chromosome. The resulting map spanned 2,852 centi Ray with a calculated resolution of 0.384 Mb. Phenotyping for the occurrence of meiotic desynapsis was conducted by measuring the level of gametic sterility as seeds produced per spikelet and pollen viability at booting. Composite interval mapping revealed a single QTL with LOD of 16.2 and r 2 of 25.6 % between markers wmc326 and wPt-8983 on the long arm of chromosome 3B. By independent analysis, the location of the QTL was confirmed to be within the deletion bin 3BL7-0.63-1.00 and to correspond to a single gene located ~1.4 Mb away from wPt-8983. The meiotic behavior of lines lacking this gene was characterized cytogenetically to reveal striking similarities with mutants for the dy locus, located on the syntenic chromosome 3 of maize. This represents the first example to date of employing radiation hybrids for QTL analysis. The success achieved by this approach provides an ideal starting point for the final cloning of this interesting gene involved in meiosis of cereals. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Bassi F.M.,North Dakota State University | Bassi F.M.,International Center for the Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Ghavami F.,North Dakota State University | Ghavami F.,Eurofins | And 12 more authors.
Plant Biotechnology Journal | Year: 2016

The nuclear-encoded species cytoplasm specific (scs) genes control nuclear–cytoplasmic compatibility in wheat (genus Triticum). Alloplasmic cells, which have nucleus and cytoplasm derived from different species, produce vigorous and vital organisms only when the correct version of scs is present in their nucleus. In this study, bulks of in vivo radiation hybrids segregating for the scs phenotype have been genotyped by sequencing with over 1.9 million markers. The high marker saturation obtained for a critical region of chromosome 1D allowed identification of 3318 reads that mapped in close proximity of the scs. A novel in silico approach was deployed to extend these short reads to sequences of up to 70 Kb in length and identify candidate open reading frames (ORFs). Markers were developed to anchor the short contigs containing ORFs to a radiation hybrid map of 650 individuals with resolution of 288 Kb. The region containing the scs locus was narrowed to a single Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) contig of Aegilops tauschii. Its sequencing and assembly by nano-mapping allowed rapid identification of a rhomboid gene as the only ORF existing within the refined scs locus. Resequencing of this gene from multiple germplasm sources identified a single nucleotide mutation, which gives rise to a functional amino acid change. Gene expression characterization revealed that an active copy of this rhomboid exists on all homoeologous chromosomes of wheat, and depending on the specific cytoplasm each copy is preferentially expressed. Therefore, a new methodology was applied to unique genetic stocks to rapidly identify a strong candidate gene for the control of nuclear–cytoplasmic compatibility in wheat. © 2016 The Authors.

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