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El Chami D.,International Center For Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies Ciheam Iamb | Scardigno A.,International Center For Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies Ciheam Iamb | Zagnoli G.,University of Bologna | Malorgio G.,University of Bologna
New Medit | Year: 2011

This study was laid out in the "Renana" reclamation and irrigation board, in the Italian region of Emilia Romagna (northern Italy). Its objective was to evaluate the current and future possible policies adopted or to be adopted in order to spur a rational planning and decision making in water management and to give valid scientific answers to the local decision makers. A mathematical stochastic model was designed and implemented using data collected from farms in the area and other local sources. These policies are mainly based on modifying water quantity, the irrigable area, and the flat water tariffs. Finally all these changes are also analyzed in the presence of a volumetric water tariff designed by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Results have shown how fundamental it is to improve distribution efficiency of the channel system in order to increase irrigated land, for the positive socio-economic and environmental impacts on the territory. However, the introduction of a volumetric tariff could be an effective tool to control water demand expected to augment due to such policy measures, depending on yearly water availability; it could be very profitable to the RIB which will increase returns.


El Chami D.,University of the Free State | Scardigno A.,International Center For Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies Ciheam Iamb | Khadra R.,International Center For Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies Ciheam Iamb
New Medit | Year: 2014

To achieve sustainable management in irrigation projects, equity represents the major social challenge and the primary objective at all water management levels. However, this topic has drawn limited attention from the scientific community, and the equity concept remains ambiguous and often undefined. This paper deals with the equity among users of an irrigation system in a semi-arid Mediterranean climate. A non-linear, stochastic, static mathematical programming model has been used to maximise farmers'utility. It takes into consideration several conditions and is subject to a specific set of constraints. Two scenarios have been selected, both of them of the on-demand water distribution: an area-based water allocation system associated with a binomial water tariff (SC1); and a farm-based water allocation system (SC2). Based on the field visits and the understanding of the case study, SC2 is believed to increase equity among farmers. Results calculated farmers' income in both scenarios and showed that the economic cost of a socially equitable policy in the study area could be around 5% decrease in farmers' income. Such a policy could have effects on the total volume of irrigation water between 2% and 4% less in SC2 than in SC1, while the change in the irrigated surface is insignificant. The implementation of such scenarios would improve the governance of water policies in Lebanon generating a sustainable development for the agricultural sector.


El Chami D.,Cranfield University | El Moujabber M.,International Center For Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies Ciheam Iamb
Journal of Wine Research | Year: 2014

Since the Phoenicians inhabited the land of Canaan (the modern Lebanon), wine earned historical, cultural, social and economic dimensions in the life of its population. Through their trade network, evidence shows that the Phoenicians distributed wine, wine grapes and the winemaking technology that they had acquired from the east, throughout the Mediterranean region. However, the Lebanese wine sector did not take the required attention of the scientific community. Thus, this study gathers agri-food trade data, from national and international sources to analyse the Lebanese wine sector and evaluate its competitiveness in the international market using the revealed trade advantage and the revealed competitiveness indicators. Both indicators show that Lebanese wine has average competitiveness in the world market. This level of competitiveness can fluctuate depending on the political situation and the trade region and is highest for America and Asia. Finally, the study urges a long-term, general political framework that involves all stakeholders and policy-makers to work towards a sustainable Lebanese wine. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


El Chami D.,International Center For Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies Ciheam Iamb | Scardigno A.,International Center For Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies Ciheam Iamb | Malorgio G.,University of Bologna
Water Resources Management | Year: 2011

In Emilia Romagna region (northern Italy), the Water Protection Plan (WPP) - a tool designed to reach the objectives of the Water Framework Directive - established different measures to achieve a good quantitative status of water bodies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the combined economic, agronomic and environmental impacts of four measures of the WPP on the "Renana" reclamation and irrigation scheme, and to quantify the water conservation in agriculture under the uncertainty of water availability. To this purpose, a mathematical stochastic model able to represent uncertainty in water availability was designed and implemented. Some data were collected from farms, and local sources were used as well to test the model. Each analyzed measure was simulated in a single scenario, and subsequently combined with other measures. The performed simulations are the following: application of volumetric water pricing (Scenario WFD1), awarding incentives for farmers to improve on-farm irrigation efficiency (Scenario WFD2a), combination of WFD1 and WFD2a (Scenario WFD2b), reduction of water abstraction in case of water shortage (Scenario WFD3a), combination of WFD1 and WFD3a (Scenario WFD3b), increasing distribution efficiency in the channel system (Scenario WFD4a) and combination of WFD1 and WFD4a (Scenario WFD4b). Results have shown that scenarios WFD2a and WFD4a generate a higher income for farmers and produce a positive ecological impact (water use and soil cover) but tend to increase total water use. Scenarios WFD1 and WFD3a have the opposite effects since they reduce farmers' income but decrease water use as well. Only WFD1 could be favorable for the Board governing the scheme (RIB) in terms of economic returns. Finally, results have shown that combined scenarios WFD2b and WFD4b, respectively, could modify the trade-off between economic and environmental objectives and could be more effective since they significantly reduce water consumption and minimize losses in farmers' income. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Daccache A.,International Center For Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies Ciheam Iamb | D'Agostino D.,International Center For Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies Ciheam Iamb | Lamaddalena N.,International Center For Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies Ciheam Iamb | El Chami D.,University of the Free State
Water Policy | Year: 2016

The economy of Apulia Region largely depends on agriculture but the scarce water resources are the main factor threatening the sustainable production of this sector. This paper describes a geographical information system (GIS) based water balance tool that integrates maps of crops, climate and soil parameters with various scenarios of cropping pattern and farming practice changes. The aim is to assess the implication of these scenarios on the spatial and volumetric water needs of the region's irrigated agriculture. The total net volumetric irrigation needs, under current land use and full irrigation practices, were estimated on an average year to be 973 million m3. The deficit irrigation practices currently used in Capitanata water districts can save a volume of 302 million m3 if they are extrapolated over the entire region. Based on the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), a replacement of 30% of the actual tomato areas in Foggia Province with sunflowers (energy crop) or durum wheat (rainfed crop) has potential water saving of 9 million m3 and 67 million m3, respectively. An additional 103 million m3 of water saving may be obtained through modernisation of the vineyards' growing practices. Findings of this paper could be used to address the agricultural policies towards a sustainable use of the scarce fresh water. © IWA Publishing 2016.


D'Agostino D.R.,International Center For Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies Ciheam Iamb | Scardigno A.,International Center For Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies Ciheam Iamb | Lamaddalena N.,International Center For Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies Ciheam Iamb | Chami D.E.,Cranfield University
Water Resources Management | Year: 2014

The paper assessed the sensitivity of an integrated hydro-economic model, to provide a quantitative range of uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on water balance components and water use in the agricultural sector of Apulia region located in a semi-arid Mediterranean climate area in southern Italy. Results show that the impacts of climate change are expressed in the future by an increase in the net irrigation requirements (NIRs) of all crops. Total cultivated land is reduced by 8.5 % in the future, and the percentage of irrigated land decreases from 31 to 22 % of total agricultural land. Reduction in the irrigated land, together with the variation in the cropping pattern and the adoption of the different irrigation techniques, led to a decrease in water demand for irrigation across the entire region. The sensitivity analysis shows that the groundwater recharge has the lowest correlation to climatic parameters. Results are addressed to the scientific community and decision makers to support the design of adequate adaptation policies for efficient water management under the severe drought conditions that are likely to occur in the region according to climate change projections. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014.


El Chami D.,University of the Free State | Daccache A.,International Center For Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies Ciheam Iamb
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2015

The proposed study draws a novel framework to assess the sustainability of winter wheat under climate change conditions and irrigation as an adaption measure to reduce yield variability. The methodology combines outputs from a general circulation model (GCM), the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) crop growth model (AquaCrop), a life cycle assessment (LCA) model and economic modelling. Long-term observed climate data (1970-1991) collected in Cambridge (Cambridgeshire, UK) were used to downscale the projected climate data from the GCM for 2050. The structural characteristics of the case study are representative of a typical farm in this UK region. A six-year average wheat price (2007-2012) was considered and the irrigation costs for the economic model were calculated assuming the market prices in 2014. Sensitivity analysis assessed in the longer term included the expected variations due to the increase in world wheat prices and the energy costs.The direct impacts of climate change on winter wheat grown in the East of England, would be a reduction in the rainfed yield (between -5.4% and -32.9%), stronger under the low emission scenario (B1). The projected economic losses from rainfed winter wheat production are expected to range between -43.6% and -100.0%. Irrigation could in the future be an adaptation measure for yield increase (10.5% to 64.3%), lower under B1 and to improve the financial appraisal of irrigation investment which would raise between 41 and 429£ha-1. However, negative externalities are exacerbating pressures on air and water resources; an increase in irrigation water requirements between 25.0% and 39.1% increases global warming potential between 20.4% and 28.3%. Environmental indicators under scenario B1 performed better than the high emission scenario (A1). Finally, under future climate scenarios, the results confirmed that irrigated winter wheat grown on lighter soils using hose reel sprinkler systems fitted with a boom, is more sustainable than that grown on heavier soils using hose reel sprinkler systems fitted with a raingun. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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