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Philippi K.,University of Aegean | Tsamandouras N.,University of Aegean | Grigorakis S.,International Center for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies | Makris D.P.,University of Aegean
Environmental Processes | Year: 2016

Eggplant peels were used to evaluate glycerol and ethanol for their ability to recover polyphenolic antioxidants. The evaluation was based on optimisation by a Box-Behnken experimental design and kinetics. The results showed that extraction with water/ethanol and water/glycerol mixtures, under optimised conditions, afforded virtually equal yield in total polyphenols, which was 13.40 and 13.51 mg caffeic acid equivalents per g dry weight, respectively. The extraction kinetics revealed that diffusion of phenolics in water/glycerol mixtures was slower (0.85 × 10−12 m2 s−1) compared with the one attained with water/ethanol (2.23 × 10−12 m2 s−1), yet the ability of both systems to recover essentially the same levels of total polyphenols was confirmed. The determination of total chlorogenates, total flavonoids and total pigments indicated that water/glycerol might be a more effective solvent system, but controversies were observed with regard to the antiradical activity and reducing power. The analytical polyphenolic profile of both extracts was dominated by chlorogenic acid and no major differences were recorded, a finding indicating that none of the solvent systems displayed selectivity. The results suggested that glycerol may be an ideal candidate for use in eco-friendly extraction processes. © 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Kapur B.,Cukurova University | Pasquale S.,Head of Water Resources | Tekin S.,Cukurova University | Todorovic M.,International Center for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies | And 3 more authors.
Scientific Research and Essays | Year: 2010

This study investigates the impact of the expected climate changes in the Apulia region (Southern Italy) for the next 100 years on the climatic water balance variations, climatic classifications and crop water requirements. The overall results indicated that an increase of temperature, in the range between 1.3 and 2.5°C, is expected in the next 100 years. The reference evapotranspiration (ETo) variations would follow a similar trend; as averaged over the whole region, the ETo increase would be about 15.4%. The precipitation should not change significantly on yearly basis, although, a slight decrease in summer months and a slight increase during the winter season are foreseen. The climatic water deficit (CWD) is largely caused by ETo increase, and it would increase over the whole Apulia region in average for more than 200 mm. According to Thornthwaite and Mather climate classification (1957), the moisture index will decrease in the future, with decrease of humid areas and increase of aridity zones. The net irrigation requirements (NIR), calculated for ten major crops in the Apulia region, would increase significantly in the future. By the end of the 21st Century, the foreseen increase of NIR, in respect to actual situation, is the greatest for olive tree (65%), wheat (61%), grapevine (49%), and citrus (48%) and it is slightly lower for maize (35%), sorghum (34%), sunflower (33%), tomato (31%), and winter and spring sugar beet (both 27%). © 2010 Academic Journals.

Farcy C.,Catholic University of Leuven | Plaza P.,International Center for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies | Scarascia-Mugnozza G.,University of Tuscia
Unasylva | Year: 2014

An independent evaluation of Silva Mediterranea, carried out at the request of members, confirmed the need for such a forum to ensure international dialogue on forests in the Mediterranean. The specificities of the mediterranean region and the need for appropriate responses are recurrent themes in the history of the Committee. The Committee, which was for many years the main regional cooperation body for Mediterranean forests, including on research questions, has gone through both dormant and more dynamic phases, as has been the case in recent years. Conducted by a panel set up in such a way as to ensure institutional memory at the same time as an objective vision, in order to ensure the required neutrality, the evaluation process was conducted throughout 2013. The panel encourages stronger ownership and mobilization of member states around a common vision and the identification of priority areas among the strategic lines and/or recommendations of the Strategic Framework on Mediterranean Forests (SFMF).

Oreste M.,University of Bari | Baser N.,International Center for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies | Bubici G.,CNR Plant Protection Institute | Tarasco E.,University of Bari
Bulletin of Insectology | Year: 2015

The effects of a previously selected entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana AL1 strain, and the B. bassiana based mycoinsecticide Naturalis (ATCC 74040 Beauveria bassiana strain) were evaluated on the system Ceratitis capitata - Psyttalia concolor in laboratory assays. First, the entomopathogenic fungal strains were tested for their virulence against 2, 4, and 6-days old puparia of C. capitata. Subsequently, P. concolor emergence from C. capitata puparia treated or not with the fungal strains was evaluated at three different time points (2, 4 and 6 days) from the parasitization and the following pupation. Results showed that the entomopathogenic fungal applications affected the medfly survival. The effect of fungal treatments was higher on 2-day puparia (49.16 and 51.33% of mycosed puparia for ATCC 74040 and AL1 strain respectively) while the rate of mycoses was lower and ranged between 39 and 27.16% when fungal treatments were performed on 4 and 6-day puparia. Furthermore, fungal treatments affected the P. concolor emergence (c.a. 80% in the untreated control) particularly when applied 2 days after the parasitization and the C. capitata pupation (43.16 and 47.83% for the ATCC 74040 and the AL1 strains respectively), while when treatments were performed on older puparia, the P.concolor emergence ranged from 63.33 to 68.66%. Results suggest that the entomopathogenic B. bassiana strains are effective against C. capitata puparia but they may be detrimental against its endoparasitoid P. concolor, particularly when applied in the earlier stages of the parasitization process. © 2015, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Department of Agroenvironmental Sciences and Technologies. All Rights Reserved.

Ismail A.M.,Egyptian Plant Pathology Research Institute | Cirvilleri G.,University of Catania | Yaseen T.,International Center for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies | Epifani F.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

Anthracnose symptoms consisting of necrotic spots on the leaves, twigs and branches were observed on mango trees of cv. Kensington Pride in orchards located in the countryside of Palermo and Milazzo (southern Italy). Based on morphological observations and phylogenetic analysis of the β-tubulin (benA) and histone H3 (HIS3) genes, three Colletotrichum species were identified and recovered from diseased plants, i.e. C. karstii (nine isolates), C. kahawae subsp. ciggaro (six isolates) and C. gloeosporioides (six isolates). Following artificial inoculation, all species induced symptoms on the leaves and fruits of cv. Kensington Pride. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mango anthracnose caused by C. karstii, C. kahawae subsp. ciggaro and C. gloeosporioides in Italy. © 2015, Journal of Plant Pathology. All rights reserved.

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