International Center Cointrin

Genève, Switzerland

International Center Cointrin

Genève, Switzerland
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Tansley R.,48 Owlstone Road | Lotharius J.,International Center Cointrin | Priestley A.,LCG Bioscience | Bull F.,Treague Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2010

Racemic mefloquine is a highly effective antimalarial whose clinical utility has been compromised by its association with neuropsychiatric and gastrointestinal side effects. It is hypothesized that the cause of the side effects may reside in the (-) enantiomer. We sought to compare the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic profile of (+)-mefloquine with racemic mefloquine in a randomized, ascending-dose, double-blind, active and placebo-controlled, parallel cohort study in healthy male and female adult volunteers. Although differing in its manifestations, both study drugs displayed a substantially worse tolerability profile compared with placebo. The systemic clearance was slower for (-)-mefloquine than (+)-mefloquine. Thus, (+)-mefloquine has a different safety and tolerability profile compared with racemic mefloquine but its global safety profile is not superior and replacement of the currently used antimalarial drug with (+)-mefloquine is not warranted. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Zhang Y.-K.,Anacor Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Plattner J.J.,Anacor Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Freund Y.R.,Anacor Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Easom E.E.,Anacor Pharmaceuticals Inc. | And 11 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2012

A series of new boron-containing benzoxaborole compounds was designed and synthesized for a continuing structure-activity relationship (SAR) investigation to assess the antimalarial activity changes derived from side-chain structural variation, substituent modification on the benzene ring and removal of boron from five-membered oxaborole ring. This SAR study demonstrated that boron is required for the antimalarial activity, and discovered that three fluoro-substituted 7-(2-carboxyethyl)-1,3-dihydro-1-hydroxy-2,1-benzoxaboroles (9, 14 and 20) have excellent potencies (IC 50 0.026-0.209 μM) against Plasmodium falciparum. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PubMed | International Center Cointrin, XING, University of California at San Francisco, Glaxosmithkline and Anacor Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medicinal chemistry | Year: 2015

A series of 6-hetaryloxy benzoxaborole compounds was designed and synthesized for a structure-activity relationship (SAR) investigation to assess the changes in antimalarial activity which result from 6-aryloxy structural variation, substituent modification on the pyrazine ring, and optimization of the side chain ester group. This SAR study discovered highly potent 6-(2-(alkoxycarbonyl)pyrazinyl-5-oxy)-1,3-dihydro-1-hydroxy-2,1-benzoxaboroles (9, 27-34) with IC50s = 0.2-22 nM against cultured Plasmodium falciparum W2 and 3D7 strains. Compound 9 also demonstrated excellent in vivo efficacy against P. berghei in infected mice (ED90 = 7.0 mg/kg).

Rueangweerayut R.,Mae Sot General Hospital | Phyo A.P.,Shoklo Malaria Research Unit | Uthaisin C.,Mae Ramat Hospital | Poravuth Y.,National Malaria Center | And 9 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Pyronaridine-artesunate is an artemisinin-based combination therapy under evaluation for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3, open-label, multicenter, noninferiority trial that included 1271 patients between 3 and 60 years of age from Asia (81.3%) or Africa (18.7%) with microscopically confirmed, uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Patients underwent randomization for treatment with a fixed-dose combination of 180 mg of pyronaridine and 60 mg of artesunate or with 250 mg of mefloquine plus 100 mg of artesunate. Doses were calculated according to body weight and administered once daily for 3 days. RESULTS: Pyronaridine-artesunate was noninferior to mefloquine plus artesunate for the primary outcome: adequate clinical and parasitologic response in the per-protocol population on day 28, corrected for reinfection with the use of polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) genotyping. For this outcome, efficacy in the group receiving pyronaridine-artesunate was 99.2% (743 of 749 patients; 95% confidence interval [CI], 98.3 to 99.7) and that in the group receiving mefloquine plus artesunate was 97.8% (360 of 368 patients; 95% CI, 95.8 to 99.1), with a treatment difference of 1.4 percentage points (95% CI, 0.0 to 3.5; P = 0.05). In the intention-to-treat population, efficacy on day 42 in the group receiving pyronaridine-artesunate was 83.1% (705 of 848 patients; 95% CI, 80.4 to 85.6) and that in the group receiving mefloquine plus artesunate was 83.9% (355 of 423 patients; 95% CI, 80.1 to 87.3). In Cambodia, where there were 211 study patients, the median parasite clearance time was prolonged for both treatments: 64 hours versus 16.0 to 38.9 hours in other countries (P<0.001, on the basis of Kaplan-Meier estimates). Kaplan-Meier estimates of the recrudescence rate in the intention-to-treat population in Cambodia until day 42 were higher with pyronaridine-artesunate than with mefloquine plus artesunate (10.2% [95% CI, 5.4 to 18.6] vs. 0%; P = 0.04 as calculated with the log-rank test), but similar for the other countries combined (4.7% [95% CI, 3.3 to 6.7] and 2.8% [95% CI, 1.5 to 5.3], respectively; P = 0.24). Elevated levels of aminotransferases were observed in those receiving pyronaridine-artesunate. Two patients receiving mefloquine plus artesunate had seizures. CONCLUSIONS: Fixed-dose pyronaridine-artesunate was efficacious in the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. In Cambodia, extended parasite clearance times were suggestive of in vivo resistance to artemisinin. (Funded by Shin Poong Pharmaceutical Company and the Medicines for Malaria Venture; number, NCT00403260.) Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Tshefu A.K.,University of Kinshasa | Gaye O.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Kayentao K.,Malaria Research and Training Center | Thompson R.,National Health Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2010

Background There is a need for new artemisinin-based combination therapies that are convenient, eff ective, and safe. We compared the efficacy and safety of pyronaridine-artesunate with that of artemether-lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated P falciparum malaria. Methods This phase 3, parallel-group, double-blind, randomised, non-inferiority trial was undertaken in seven sites in Africa and three sites in southeast Asia. In a double-dummy design, patients aged 3-60 years with uncomplicated P falciparum malaria were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive pyronaridine-artesunate once a day or artemetherlumefantrine twice a day, orally for 3 days, plus respective placebo. Randomisation was done by computer-generated randomisation sequence in blocks of nine by study centre. Intervention tablets contained 180 mg pyronaridine and 60 mg artesunate; control tablets contained 20 mg artemether and 120 mg lumefantrine. Both treatments were given according to bodyweight. The primary effi cacy outcome was PCR-corrected adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) rate at day 28 in the per-protocol population. Non-inferiority was shown if the lower limit of the twosided 95% CI for the diff erence between groups was greater than-5%. This study is registered with, number NCT00422084. Findings 1272 patients were randomly assigned to treatment (pyronaridine-artesunate, n=849; artemether-lumefantrine, n=423). The per-protocol population consisted of 784 patients in the pyronaridine-artesunate group and 386 patients in the artemether-lumefantrine group. PCR-corrected ACPR rate at day 28 was 99·5% (780 patients; 95% CI 98·7-99·9) in the pyronaridine-artesunate group and 99·2% (383 patients; 95% CI 97·7-99·8) in the artemether-lumefantrine group (treatment diff erence 0·3%, 95% CI-0·7 to 1·8; p=0·578). There were 509 (60·0%) adverse events in 849 patients assigned to pyronaridine-artesunate and 241 (57·0%) in 423 patients assigned to artemether-lumefantrine. The most frequent drug-related adverse event was eosinophilia (pyronaridine-artesunate, 53 events [6·2%]; artemether-lumefantrine 24 events [5·7%]). 21 (2·5%) patients in the pyronaridine-artesunate group and seven (1·7%) in the artemetherlumefantrine group discontinued study drugs or were withdrawn from the study. Mild and transient increases in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations were seen in the pyronaridine-artesunate group but not in the artemether-lumefantrine group. Interpretation Effi cacy of pyronaridine-artesunate was non-inferior to that of artemether-lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Pyronaridine-artesunate should be considered for inclusion in malaria treatment programmes. Funding Shin Poong Pharmaceutical and the Medicines for Malaria Venture.

Zhang Y.-K.,Anacor Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Plattner J.J.,Anacor Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Easom E.E.,Anacor Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Waterson D.,International Center Cointrin | And 4 more authors.
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2011

Efficient synthesis is essential for antimalarial therapeutics. A four-step route has been established for the synthesis of 7-(2-carboxyethyl)-1,3-dihydro- 1-hydroxy-2,1-benzoxaborole 1 that is a potent new class boron-containing antimalarial agent in preclinical development with IC50 = 26 nM against the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Morris C.A.,University of Iowa | Duparc S.,International Center Cointrin | Borghini-Fuhrer I.,International Center Cointrin | Jung D.,ReSearch Pharmaceutical Services | And 2 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Artesunate (AS) is a clinically versatile artemisinin derivative utilized for the treatment of mild to severe malaria infection. Given the therapeutic significance of AS and the necessity of appropriate AS dosing, substantial research has been performed investigating the pharmacokinetics of AS and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA). In this article, a comprehensive review is presented of AS clinical pharmacokinetics following administration of AS by the intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), oral or rectal routes. Intravenous AS is associated with high initial AS concentrations which subsequently decline rapidly, with typical AS half-life estimates of less than 15 minutes. AS clearance and volume estimates average 2 - 3 L/kg/hr and 0.1 - 0.3 L/kg, respectively. DHA concentrations peak within 25 minutes post-dose, and DHA is eliminated with a half-life of 30 - 60 minutes. DHA clearance and volume average between 0.5 - 1.5 L/kg/hr and 0.5 - 1.0 L/kg, respectively. Compared to IV administration, IM administration produces lower peaks, longer half-life values, and higher volumes of distribution for AS, as well as delayed peaks for DHA; other parameters are generally similar due to the high bioavailability, assessed by exposure to DHA, associated with IM AS administration (> 86%). Similarly high bioavailability of DHA (> 80%) is associated with oral administration. Following oral AS, peak AS concentrations (Cmax) are achieved within one hour, and AS is eliminated with a half-life of 20 - 45 minutes. DHA Cmax values are observed within two hours post-dose; DHA half-life values average 0.5 - 1.5 hours. AUC values reported for AS are often substantially lower than those reported for DHA following oral AS administration. Rectal AS administration yields pharmacokinetic results similar to those obtained from oral administration, with the exceptions of delayed AS Cmax and longer AS half-life. Drug interaction studies conducted with oral AS suggest that AS does not appreciably alter the pharmacokinetics of atovaquone/proguanil, chlorproguanil/dapsone, or sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine, and mefloquine and pyronaridine do not alter the pharmacokinetics of DHA. Finally, there is evidence suggesting that the pharmacokinetics of AS and/or DHA following AS administration may be altered by pregnancy and by acute malaria infection, but further investigation would be required to define those alterations precisely. © 2011 Morris et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Duparc S.,International Center Cointrin | Borghini-Fuhrer I.,International Center Cointrin | Craft C.J.,International Center Cointrin | Arbe-Barnes S.,Aptiv Solutions | And 3 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Pyronaridine-artesunate (PA) is indicated for the treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria. Methods. Individual patient data on safety outcomes were integrated from six randomized clinical trials conducted in Africa and Asia in patients with microscopically confirmed P. falciparum (five studies) or P. vivax (one study) malaria. Efficacy against P. falciparum was evaluated across three Phase III clinical trials. Results: The safety population included 2,815 patients randomized to PA, 1,254 to comparators: mefloquine + artesunate (MQ + AS), artemether-lumefantrine (AL), or chloroquine. All treatments were generally well tolerated. Adverse events occurred in 57.2% (1,611/2,815) of patients with PA versus 51.5% (646/1,254) for comparators, most commonly (PA; comparators): headache (10.6%; 9.9%), cough (5.9%; 5.6%) and anaemia (4.5%; 2.9%). Serious averse events were uncommon for all treatments (0-0.7%). Transient increases in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were observed with PA but did not lead to any clinical sequelae. For P. falciparum malaria, day-28 PCR-corrected adequate clinical and parasitological response with PA was 93.6% ([1,921/2,052] 95% CI 92.6, 94.7) in the intent-to-treat population and 98.5% ([1,852/1,880] 95% CI 98.0, 99.1) in the per-protocol population. Median parasite clearance time was 24.1 h with PA, 31.9 h with MQ + AS, and 24.0 h with AL. Median fever clearance time was 15.5 h with PA, 15.8 h with MQ + AS, and 14.0 h with AL. By day 42, P. falciparum gametocytes had declined to near zero for all treatments. Conclusions: Pyronaridine-artesunate was well tolerated with no safety concerns with the exception of mostly mild transient rises in transaminases. Efficacy was high and met the requirements for use as first-line therapy. Pyronaridine-artesunate should be considered for inclusion in malaria treatment programmes. Trial registration. NCT00331136; NCT00403260; NCT00422084; NCT00440999; NCT00541385; NCT01594931. © 2013 Duparc et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Carter N.,Glaxosmithkline | Pamba A.,Glaxosmithkline | Duparc S.,International Center Cointrin | Waitumbi J.N.,Kenya Medical Research Institute
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is common in populations living in malaria endemic areas. G6PD genotype and phenotype were determined for malaria patients enrolled in the chlorproguanil-dapsone- artesunate (CDA) phase III clinical trial programme. Methods. Study participants, aged > 1 year, with microscopically confirmed uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and haemoglobin 70 g/L or haematocrit 25%, were recruited into two clinical trials conducted in six African countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Mali). G6PD genotype of the three most common African forms, G6PD*B, G6PD*A (A376G), and G6PD*A- (G202A, A542T, G680T and T968C), were determined and used for frequency estimation. G6PD phenotype was assessed qualitatively using the NADPH fluorescence test. Exploratory analyses investigated the effect of G6PD status on baseline haemoglobin concentration, temperature, asexual parasitaemia and anti-malarial efficacy after treatment with CDA 2/2.5/4 mg/kg or chlorproguanil-dapsone 2/2.5 mg/kg (both given once daily for three days) or six-dose artemether-lumefantrine. Results: Of 2264 malaria patients enrolled, 2045 had G6PD genotype available and comprised the primary analysis population (1018 males, 1027 females). G6PD deficiency prevalence was 9.0% (184/2045; 7.2% [N = 147] male hemizygous plus 1.8% [N = 37] female homozygous), 13.3% (273/2045) of patients were heterozygous females, 77.7% (1588/2045) were G6PD normal. All deficient G6PD*A- genotypes were A376G/G202A. G6PD phenotype was available for 64.5% (1319/2045) of patients: 10.2% (134/1319) were G6PD deficient, 9.6% (127/1319) intermediate, and 80.2% (1058/1319) normal. Phenotype test specificity in detecting hemizygous males was 70.7% (70/99) and 48.0% (12/25) for homozygous females. Logistic regression found no significant effect of G6PD genotype on adjusted mean baseline haemoglobin (p = 0.154), adjusted mean baseline temperature (p = 0.9617), or adjusted log mean baseline parasitaemia (p = 0.365). There was no effect of G6PD genotype (p = 0.490) or phenotype (p = 0.391) on the rate of malaria recrudescence, or reinfection (p = 0.134 and p = 0.354, respectively). Conclusions: G6PD deficiency is common in African patients with malaria and until a reliable and simple G6PD test is available, the use of 8-aminoquinolines will remain problematic. G6PD status did not impact baseline haemoglobin, parasitaemia or temperature or the outcomes of anti-malarial therapy. Trial registration. NCT00344006 and NCT00371735. © 2011 Carter et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

PubMed | International Center Cointrin, Glaxosmithkline, Astrazeneca, Harvard University and Columbia University
Type: | Journal: Nature communications | Year: 2015

The widespread emergence of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) strains resistant to frontline agents has fuelled the search for fast-acting agents with novel mechanism of action. Here, we report the discovery and optimization of novel antimalarial compounds, the triaminopyrimidines (TAPs), which emerged from a phenotypic screen against the blood stages of Pf. The clinical candidate (compound 12) is efficacious in a mouse model of Pf malaria with an ED99 <30mgkg(-1) and displays good in vivo safety margins in guinea pigs and rats. With a predicted half-life of 36h in humans, a single dose of 260mg might be sufficient to maintain therapeutic blood concentration for 4-5 days. Whole-genome sequencing of resistant mutants implicates the vacuolar ATP synthase as a genetic determinant of resistance to TAPs. Our studies highlight the potential of TAPs for single-dose treatment of Pf malaria in combination with other agents in clinical development.

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