Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Delahaye-Sourdeix M.,International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC WHO | Anantharaman D.,Genetic Epidemiology Group | Timofeeva M.N.,Genetic Epidemiology Group | Timofeeva M.N.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | And 48 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2015

Deleterious BRCA2 genetic variants markedly increase risk of developing breast cancer. A rare truncating BRCA2 genetic variant, rs11571833 (K3326X), has been associated with a 2.5-fold risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma but only a modest 26% increase in breast cancer risk. We analyzed the association between BRCA2 SNP rs11571833 and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk with multivariable unconditional logistic regression adjusted by sex and combinations of study and country for 5942 UADT squamous cell carcinoma case patients and 8086 control patients from nine different studies. All statistical tests were two-sided. rs11571833 was associated with UADT cancers (odds ratio = 2.53, 95% confidence interval = 1.89 to 3.38, P = 3x10-10) and was present in European, Latin American, and Indian populations but extremely rare in Japanese populations. The association appeared more apparent in smokers (current or former) compared with never smokers (P het =. 026). A robust association between a truncating BRCA2 variant and UADT cancer risk suggests that treatment strategies orientated towards BRCA2 mutations may warrant further investigation in UADT tumors. © 2015 © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. Source


Mathers J.C.,Northumbria University | Movahedi M.,University of Leeds | Movahedi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Macrae F.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | And 30 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: Observational studies report that higher intake of dietary fibre (a heterogeneous mix including non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starches) is associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer, but no randomised trials with prevention of colorectal cancer as a primary endpoint have been done. We assessed the effect of resistant starch on the incidence of colorectal cancer. Methods: In the CAPP2 study, individuals with Lynch syndrome were randomly assigned in a two-by-two factorial design to receive 600 mg aspirin or aspirin placebo or 30 g resistant starch or starch placebo, for up to 4 years. Randomisation was done with a block size of 16. Post-intervention, patients entered into double-blind follow-up; participants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint for this analysis was development of colorectal cancer in participants randomly assigned to resistant starch or resistant-starch placebo with both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. This study is registered, ISRCTN 59521990. Findings: 463 patients were randomly assigned to receive resistant starch and 455 to receive resistant-starch placebo. At a median follow-up 52·7 months (IQR 28·9-78·4), 53 participants developed 61 primary colorectal cancers (27 of 463 participants randomly assigned to resistant starch, 26 of 455 participants assigned to resistant-starch placebo). Intention-to-treat analysis of time to first colorectal cancer showed a hazard ratio (HR) of 1·40 (95% CI 0·78-2·56; p=0·26) and Poisson regression accounting for multiple primary events gave an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1·15 (95% CI 0·66-2·00; p=0·61). For those completing 2 years of intervention, per-protocol analysis yielded a HR of 1·09 (0·55-2·19, p=0·80) and an IRR of 0·98 (0·51-1·88, p=0·95). No information on adverse events was gathered during post-intervention follow-up. Interpretation: Resistant starch had no detectable effect on cancer development in carriers of hereditary colorectal cancer. Dietary supplementation with resistant starch does not emulate the apparently protective effect of diets rich in dietary fibre against colorectal cancer. Funding: European Union, Cancer Research UK, Bayer Corporation, National Starch and Chemical Co, UK Medical Research Council, Newcastle Hospitals Trustees, Cancer Council of Victoria Australia, THRIPP South Africa, The Finnish Cancer Foundation, SIAK Switzerland, and Bayer Pharma. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Burn J.,Northumbria University | Gerdes A.-M.,Northumbria University | MacRae F.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Mecklin J.-P.,University of Eastern Finland | And 29 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2011

Observational studies report reduced colorectal cancer in regular aspirin consumers. Randomised controlled trials have shown reduced risk of adenomas but none have employed prevention of colorectal cancer as a primary endpoint. The CAPP2 trial aimed to investigate the antineoplastic effects of aspirin and a resistant starch in carriers of Lynch syndrome, the major form of hereditary colorectal cancer; we now report long-term follow-up of participants randomly assigned to aspirin or placebo. In the CAPP2 randomised trial, carriers of Lynch syndrome were randomly assigned in a two-by-two factorial design to 600 mg aspirin or aspirin placebo or 30 g resistant starch or starch placebo, for up to 4 years. Randomisation was in blocks of 16 with provision for optional single-agent randomisation and extended postintervention double-blind follow-up; participants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was development of colorectal cancer. Analysis was by intention to treat and per protocol. This trial is registered, ISRCTN59521990. 861 participants were randomly assigned to aspirin or aspirin placebo. At a mean follow-up of 55·7 months, 48 participants had developed 53 primary colorectal cancers (18 of 427 randomly assigned to aspirin, 30 of 434 to aspirin placebo). Intention-to-treat analysis of time to first colorectal cancer showed a hazard ratio (HR) of 0·63 (95 CI 0·35-1·13, p=0·12). Poisson regression taking account of multiple primary events gave an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0·56 (95 CI 0·32- 0·99, p=0·05). For participants completing 2 years of intervention (258 aspirin, 250 aspirin placebo), per-protocol analysis yielded an HR of 0·41 (0·19-0·86, p=0·02) and an IRR of 0·37 (0·18-0·78, p=0·008). No data for adverse events were available postintervention; during the intervention, adverse events did not differ between aspirin and placebo groups. 600 mg aspirin per day for a mean of 25 months substantially reduced cancer incidence after 55·7 months in carriers of hereditary colorectal cancer. Further studies are needed to establish the optimum dose and duration of aspirin treatment. European Union; Cancer Research UK; Bayer Corporation; National Starch and Chemical Co; UK Medical Research Council; Newcastle Hospitals trustees; Cancer Council of Victoria Australia; THRIPP South Africa; The Finnish Cancer Foundation; SIAK Switzerland; Bayer Pharma. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Kaye S.B.,National Health Research Institute | Lubinski J.,International Hereditary Cancer Center | Matulonis U.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Ang J.E.,National Health Research Institute | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2012

Purpose: Olaparib (AZD2281), an orally active poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor that induces synthetic lethality in BRCA1- or BRCA2-deficient cells, has shown promising clinical efficacy in nonrandomized phase II trials in patients with ovarian cancer with BRCA1 or BRCA2 deficiency. We assessed the comparative efficacy and safety of olaparib and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in this patient population. Patients and Methods: In this multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase II study, patients with ovarian cancer that recurred within 12 months of prior platinum therapy and with confirmed germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were enrolled. Patients were assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to olaparib 200 mg twice per day or 400 mg twice per day continuously or PLD 50 mg/m 2 intravenously every 28 days. The primary efficacy end point was Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) -assessed progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included objective response rate (ORR) and safety. Results: Ninety-seven patients were randomly assigned. Median PFS was 6.5 months (95% CI, 5.5 to 10.1 months), 8.8 months (95% CI, 5.4 to 9.2 months), and 7.1 months (95% CI, 3.7 to 10.7 months) for the olaparib 200 mg, olaparib 400 mg, and PLD groups, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in PFS (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.56; P = .66) for combined olaparib doses versus PLD. RECIST-assessed ORRs were 25%, 31%, and 18% for olaparib 200 mg, olaparib 400 mg, and PLD, respectively; differences were not statistically significant. Tolerability of both treatments was as expected based on previous trials. Conclusion: The efficacy of olaparib was consistent with previous studies. However, the efficacy of PLD was greater than expected. Olaparib 400 mg twice per day is a suitable dose to explore in further studies in this patient population. © 2011 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Source


Movahedi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Movahedi M.,University of Leeds | Bishop D.T.,University of Leeds | Macrae F.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | And 22 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2015

Purpose: In the general population, increased adiposity is a significant risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether obesity has similar effects in those with hereditary CRC is uncertain. This prospective study investigated the association between body mass index and cancer risk in patients with Lynch syndrome (LS). Patients and Methods: Participants with LS were recruited to the CAPP2 study, in which they were randomly assigned to receive aspirin 600 mg per day or aspirin placebo, plus resistant starch 30 g per day or starch placebo (2×2 factorial design). Mean intervention period was 25.0 months, and mean follow-up was 55.7 months. Results: During follow-up, 55 of 937 participants developed CRC. For obese participants, CRC risk was 2.41 X (95% CI, 1.22 to 4.85) greater than for underweight and normal-weight participants (reference group), and CRC risk increased by 7% for each 1-kg/m2 increase in body mass index. The risk of all LS-related cancers in obese people was 1.77× (95% CI, 1.06 to 2.96; P = .03) greater than for the reference group. In subgroup analysis, obesity was associated with 3.72× (95% CI, 1.41 to 9.81) greater CRC risk in patients with LS with MLH1 mutation, but no excess risk was observed in those with MSH2 or MSH6 mutation (P = .5). The obesity-related excess CRC risk was confined to those randomly assigned to the aspirin placebo group (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.12 to 6.79; P = .03). Conclusion: Obesity is associated with substantially increased CRC risk in patients with LS, but this risk is abrogated in those taking aspirin. Such patients are likely to benefit from obesity prevention and/or regular aspirin. © 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source

Discover hidden collaborations