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Stahel R.A.,University of Zurich | Riesterer O.,University of Zurich | Xyrafas A.,Coordination Center | Opitz I.,University of Zurich | And 20 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology

Background: Postoperative hemithoracic radiotherapy has been used to treat malignant pleural mesothelioma, but it has not been assessed in a randomised trial. We assessed high-dose hemithoracic radiotherapy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and extrapleural pneumonectomy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Methods: We did this phase 2 trial in two parts at 14 hospitals in Switzerland, Belgium, and Germany. We enrolled patients with pathologically confirmed malignant pleural mesothelioma; resectable TNM stages T1-3 N0-2, M0; WHO performance status 0-1; age 18-70 years. In part 1, patients were given three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (cisplatin 75 mg/m2 and pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 on day 1 given every 3 weeks) and extrapleural pneumonectomy; the primary endpoint was complete macroscopic resection (R0-1). In part 2, participants with complete macroscopic resection were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive high-dose radiotherapy or not. The target volume for radiotherapy encompassed the entire hemithorax, the thoracotomy channel, and mediastinal nodal stations if affected by the disease or violated surgically. A boost was given to areas at high risk for locoregional relapse. The allocation was stratified by centre, histology (sarcomatoid vs epithelioid or mixed), mediastinal lymph node involvement (N0-1 vs N2), and T stage (T1-2 vs T3). The primary endpoint of part 1 was the proportion of patients achieving complete macroscopic resection (R0 and R1). The primary endpoint in part 2 was locoregional relapse-free survival, analysed by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00334594. Findings: We enrolled patients between Dec 7, 2005, and Oct 17, 2012. Overall, we analysed 151 patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, of whom 113 (75%) had extrapleural pneumonectomy. Median follow-up was 54·2 months (IQR 32-66). 52 (34%) of 151 patients achieved an objective response. The most common grade 3 or 4 toxic effects were neutropenia (21 [14%] of 151 patients), anaemia (11 [7%]), and nausea or vomiting (eight [5%]). 113 patients had extrapleural pneumonectomy, with complete macroscopic resection achieved in 96 (64%) of 151 patients. We enrolled 54 patients in part 2; 27 in each group. The main reasons for exclusion were patient refusal (n=20) and ineligibility (n=10). 25 of 27 patients completed radiotherapy. Median total radiotherapy dose was 55·9 Gy (IQR 46·8-56·0). Median locoregional relapse-free survival from surgery, was 7·6 months (95% CI 4·5-10·7) in the no radiotherapy group and 9·4 months (6·5-11·9) in the radiotherapy group. The most common grade 3 or higher toxic effects related to radiotherapy were nausea or vomiting (three [11%] of 27 patients), oesophagitis (two [7%]), and pneumonitis (two [7%]). One patient died of pneumonitis. We recorded no toxic effects data for the control group. Interpretation: Our findings do not support the routine use of hemithoracic radiotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and extrapleural pneumonectomy. Funding: Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research, Swiss State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation, Eli Lilly. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Pagani O.,Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland IOSI | Pagani O.,Oncology Institute | Ruggeri M.,Oncology Institute | Manunta S.,Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland IOSI | And 20 more authors.

Young patients with breast cancer (BC) are often concerned about treatment-induced infertility and express maternity desire. Conception after BC does not seem to affect outcome, but information in estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) disease is not definitive. From September 2012-March 2013, 212 evaluable patients with ER+ early BC, <37years at diagnosis, from 5 regions (Europe/US/Canada/Middle-East/Australia) answered a survey about fertility concerns, maternity desire and interest in a study of endocrine therapy (ET) interruption to allow pregnancy. Overall, 37% of respondents were interested in the study; younger patients (≤30 years) reported higher interest (57%). Motivation in younger patients treated >30 months was higher (83%) than in older women (14%), interest was independent of age in patients treated for ≤30 months. A prospective study in this patient population seems relevant and feasible. The International-Breast-Cancer-Study-Group (IBCSG), within the Breast-International-Group (BIG) - North-American-Breast-Cancer-Groups (NABCG) collaboration, is launching a study (POSITIVE) addressing ET interruption to allow pregnancy. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Goldhirsch A.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Goldhirsch A.,International Breast Cancer Study Group IBCSG

For several decades, personalized adjuvant therapies have been prescribed based on features that predict response to specific types of treatment. In this summary four specific issues regarding adjuvant therapies are described. Each one developed using information from past experience and is ready to be challenged by future findings from clinical trials and maturation of follow-up data. 1) Accuracy of determination of steroid hormone receptors and of HER2-status was the key feature in International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) and Breast International Group (BIG) trials. 2) Investigations on ovarian function suppression in IBCSG clinical trials led to the design of two trials (SOFT and TEXT), which are likely to lead to improved adjuvant therapy for premenopausal women with breast cancer. 3) Data from the BIG 1-98 trial of letrozole vs tamoxifen for postmenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive breast cancer provided information on which patients might obtain increased benefit from aromatase inhibitors and which might achieve similar treatment outcome with tamoxifen alone. 4) Finally, low-dose, frequently administered cytotoxics (metronomic chemotherapy) were tested in advanced disease with surprisingly favorable disease control and very low incidence of side effects. Personalized treatments are likely to improve substantially with increasingly accurate determination of their targets and by using risk- and toxicity-modulated therapies. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Sonnenblick A.,Free University of Colombia | Francis P.A.,Peter MacCallum Cancer Center | Francis P.A.,Australia and New Zealand Breast Cancer Trials Group Newcastle | Francis P.A.,International Breast Cancer Study Group | And 17 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer

Abstract Aim Breast International Group (BIG) 2-98 is a randomised phase III trial that tested the effect of adding docetaxel, either in sequence to or in combination with anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy, in women with node-positive breast cancer (BC). Here, we present the 10-year final trial safety and efficacy analyses. We also report an exploratory analysis on the predictive value of Ki67 for docetaxel efficacy, in the BIG 2-98 and using a pooled analysis of three other randomised trials. Patients and methods 2887 patients were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 trial design to one of four treatments. The primary objective was to evaluate the overall efficacy of docetaxel on disease free survival (DFS). Secondary objectives included comparisons of sequential docetaxel versus sequential control arm, safety and overall survival (OS). Ki67 expression was centrally evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results After a median follow-up of 10.1 years, the addition of docetaxel did not significantly improve DFS or OS (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.81-1.04; P = 0.16 and HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.76-1.03; P = 0.11, respectively). Sequential docetaxel did not improve DFS compared to the sequential control arm (HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.72-1.03; P = 0.10). In oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumours with Ki67 ≥ 14%, the addition of docetaxel resulted in 5.4% improvement in 10-year OS (P = 0.03, test for interaction = 0.1). In a multivariate model, there was a trend for improved DFS and OS in ER-positive patients with high Ki67 and treated with docetaxel (HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-1.01; P = 0.05 and HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.57-1.01; P = 0.06, respectively). A pooled analysis of four randomised trials showed a benefit of taxanes in highly proliferative ER-positive disease but not in low proliferating tumours (interaction test P = 0.01). Conclusion The DFS benefit previously demonstrated with sequential docetaxel is no longer observed at 10 years. However, an exploratory analysis suggested a benefit of docetaxel in patients with highly proliferative ER-positive BC. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Goldhirsch A.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Goldhirsch A.,International Breast Cancer Study Group IBCSG | Colleoni M.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Colleoni M.,International Breast Cancer Study Group IBCSG | And 2 more authors.

Results from two randomised global trials (SOFT & TEXT) designed to newly define the most effective components of adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with endocrine responsive disease, showed that for some, those with high risk of relapse, the use of the aromatase inhibitor exemestane together with ovarian function suppression with GnRH analogue (triptorelin) yielded the most favourable treatment outcome compared with tamoxifen. For women with low risk of relapse, treatment with tamoxifen was similar to ovarian function suppression together with either exemestane or tamoxifen. For women with intermediate risk of relapse, ovarian function suppression added to tamoxifen was not inferior to exemestane, while it resulted in superior outcomes compared to tamoxifen alone. Now, these trials provide critical information for the adjuvant treatment of premenopausal women with endocrine responsive breast cancer and are important for the development of future trials for further improvement of adjuvant endocrine therapies for the younger population. © the Authors; licensee ecancermedicalscience. Source

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