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Balfour N.J.,University of Sussex | Carreck N.L.,University of Sussex | Carreck N.L.,International Bee Research Association | Blanchard H.E.,University of Sussex | Ratnieks F.L.W.,University of Sussex
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2016

Neonicotinoid insecticides have been under scrutiny in recent years due to their potential to harm bees. The European Union recently imposed a two year moratorium (2014-2015) on their application as a seed-treatment for certain bee-attractive crops. In this study we investigated the effect of mature plant size on residual neonicotinoid concentration in two widely grown, bee-attractive crops: oilseed rape (. Brassica napus) and maize (. Zea mays). Plants were collected from four commercial farms in Sussex, United Kingdom, three growing oilseed rape and one maize. All were grown from seeds treated with the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam. For both crops there was a significant negative relationship between mature plant mass and residual neonicotinoid (thiamethoxam and its metabolite clothianidin) concentrations (. p<. 0.001). Concentrations in plant tissues roughly halved with a four-fold increase in plant weight. These results indicate that agronomic practices that result in larger mature plants might have the potential to reduce the exposure of bees to neonicotinoid contamination of pollen and nectar. © 2015.


Carreck N.L.,University of Sussex | Carreck N.L.,International Bee Research Association | Ratnieks F.L.W.,University of Sussex
Journal of Apicultural Research | Year: 2014

Recent laboratory based studies have demonstrated adverse sub-lethal effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on honey bees and bumble bees, and these studies have been influential in leading to a European Union moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoids, clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam on "bee attractive" crops. Yet so far, these same effects have not been observed in field studies. Here we review the three key dosage factors (concentration, duration and choice) relevant to field conditions, and conclude that these have probably been over estimated in many laboratory based studies. © IBRA 2014


Potts S.G.,University of Reading | Roberts S.P.M.,University of Reading | Dean R.,Red Beehive Company | Marris G.,UK Environment Agency | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Apicultural Research | Year: 2010

Growing evidence indicates that European managed honey bees are in decline, but information for Europe remains patchy and localized. Here we compile data from 18 European countries to assess trends in the number of honey bee colonies and beekeepers between 1965 and 2005. We found consistent declines in colony numbers in central European countries and some increases in Mediterranean countries. Beekeeper numbers have declined in all of the European countries examined. Our data support the view that honey bees are in decline at least in some regions, which is probably closely linked to the decreasing number of beekeepers. Our data on colony numbers and beekeepers must, however, be interpreted with caution due to different approaches and socioeconomic factors in the various countries, thereby limiting their comparability. We therefore make specific recommendations for standardized methodologies to be adopted at the national and global level to assist in the future monitoring of honey bees. © IBRA 2010.


Carreck N.L.,International Bee Research Association | Carreck N.L.,University of Sussex
Journal of Apicultural Research | Year: 2011

The Journal of Apicultural Research (JAR) was first published in 1962 under the Editorship of Dr Eva Crane, Director of the then Bee Research Association (BRA). The journal was envisaged as an international English language medium of refereed science dealing with all kinds of bee including: honey bees, stingless bees, bumble bees and solitary bees. The international nature of this journal and its parent journal Bee World were instrumental in the change of title of BRA to International Bee Research Association (IBRA). This paper, coming at the completion of the fiftieth volume of JAR, describes the origins and history of the journal, and discusses some of the most notable papers published within its pages. © IBRA 2011.


Carreck N.L.,International Bee Research Association | Carreck N.L.,University of Sussex | Andree M.,University of California Cooperative Extension | Brent C.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Apicultural Research | Year: 2013

An understanding of the anatomy and functions of internal and external structures is fundamental to many studies on the honey bee Apis mellifera. Similarly, proficiency in dissection techniques is vital for many more complex procedures. In this paper, which is a prelude to the other papers of the COLOSS BEEBOOK, we outline basic honey bee anatomy and basic dissection techniques. © IBRA 2013.

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