Vienna, Austria

The International Atomic Energy Agency is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons. The IAEA was established as an autonomous organization on 29 July 1957. Though established independently of the United Nations through its own international treaty, the IAEA Statute, the IAEA reports to both the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council.The IAEA has its headquarters in Vienna, Austria. The IAEA has two "Regional Safeguards Offices" which are located in Toronto, Canada, and in Tokyo, Japan. The IAEA also has two liaison offices which are located in New York City, United States, and in Geneva, Switzerland. In addition, the IAEA has three laboratories located in Vienna and Seibersdorf, Austria, and in Monaco.The IAEA serves as an intergovernmental forum for scientific and technical cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear technology and nuclear power worldwide. The programs of the IAEA encourage the development of the peaceful applications of nuclear technology, provide international safeguards against misuse of nuclear technology and nuclear materials, and promote nuclear safety and nuclear security standards and their implementation.The IAEA and its former Director General, Mohamed ElBaradei, were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on 7 October 2005. The IAEA's current Director General is Yukiya Amano. Wikipedia.


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News Article | February 20, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

RALEIGH, N.C., Feb. 20, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The Virtual Heroes Division of Applied Research Associates has released a free download of Virtual Nuclear Security, a 3D game set in a nuclear power plant. Virtual Heroes created the game as a training tool for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Players become safeguards inspectors, following fuel bundles through seven stages of a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) nuclear facility. Training focuses on correctly using safeguards equipment and properly directing the fuel path. The single-player game offers beginner through advanced modes, with opportunities to explore locations such as fuel loading and unloading areas, the reactor hall, and underwater storage. This public release version is designed to engage serious-game enthusiasts, as well as anyone curious about the workings of a nuclear reactor. Says Virtual Heroes Senior Producer Márcia Clover, "We feel honored to have worked with the IAEA on this important project. This virtual training application allows safeguard inspectors, especially more junior ones, to become familiar with a PHWR facility before ever visiting one. This gives them specific information on what to look for when performing a real-world inspection, which makes inspections safer and more effective." Virtual Nuclear Security is available for free download on the Virtual Heroes website: http://www.virtualheroes.biz/phwr Virtual Heroes has won multiple awards for its simulations, serious games and 3D virtual worlds using AAA game-engine technology to provide interactive learning solutions for healthcare, government customers, and corporate training. More information on Virtual Heroes can be found at http://www.virtualheroes.com. Applied Research Associates, Inc. (ARA) was founded 1979 to solve problems of national importance. The company's applied research delivers scientific solutions for national defense, homeland security, aerospace, healthcare, transportation, and manufacturing. With 1,100 Employee Owners at locations in the U.S. and Canada, ARA offers a broad range of technical expertise in defense technologies, computer software and simulation, systems analysis, civil engineering, biomedical engineering, environmental technologies, and blast testing and measurement. The Virtual Heroes Division of Applied Research Associates, Inc. creates collaborative interactive learning solutions for healthcare, federal systems, and corporate training markets. Advanced Learning Technologies (ALT) leverage simulation learning and digital games-based training paradigms to accelerate learning, increase user proficiency, and reduce training costs. Virtual Heroes is located in Raleigh, North Carolina, and Orlando, Florida. For more information, please visit: http://www.virtualheroes.com and http://www.ara.com. A photo accompanying this release is available at: http://www.globenewswire.com/newsroom/prs/?pkgid=42204


News Article | February 20, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

RALEIGH, N.C., Feb. 20, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The Virtual Heroes Division of Applied Research Associates has released a free download of Virtual Nuclear Security, a 3D game set in a nuclear power plant. Virtual Heroes created the game as a training tool for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Players become safeguards inspectors, following fuel bundles through seven stages of a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) nuclear facility. Training focuses on correctly using safeguards equipment and properly directing the fuel path. The single-player game offers beginner through advanced modes, with opportunities to explore locations such as fuel loading and unloading areas, the reactor hall, and underwater storage. This public release version is designed to engage serious-game enthusiasts, as well as anyone curious about the workings of a nuclear reactor. Says Virtual Heroes Senior Producer Márcia Clover, "We feel honored to have worked with the IAEA on this important project. This virtual training application allows safeguard inspectors, especially more junior ones, to become familiar with a PHWR facility before ever visiting one. This gives them specific information on what to look for when performing a real-world inspection, which makes inspections safer and more effective." Virtual Nuclear Security is available for free download on the Virtual Heroes website: http://www.virtualheroes.biz/phwr Virtual Heroes has won multiple awards for its simulations, serious games and 3D virtual worlds using AAA game-engine technology to provide interactive learning solutions for healthcare, government customers, and corporate training. More information on Virtual Heroes can be found at http://www.virtualheroes.com. Applied Research Associates, Inc. (ARA) was founded 1979 to solve problems of national importance. The company's applied research delivers scientific solutions for national defense, homeland security, aerospace, healthcare, transportation, and manufacturing. With 1,100 Employee Owners at locations in the U.S. and Canada, ARA offers a broad range of technical expertise in defense technologies, computer software and simulation, systems analysis, civil engineering, biomedical engineering, environmental technologies, and blast testing and measurement. The Virtual Heroes Division of Applied Research Associates, Inc. creates collaborative interactive learning solutions for healthcare, federal systems, and corporate training markets. Advanced Learning Technologies (ALT) leverage simulation learning and digital games-based training paradigms to accelerate learning, increase user proficiency, and reduce training costs. Virtual Heroes is located in Raleigh, North Carolina, and Orlando, Florida. For more information, please visit: http://www.virtualheroes.com and http://www.ara.com. A photo accompanying this release is available at: http://www.globenewswire.com/newsroom/prs/?pkgid=42204


News Article | February 20, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

RALEIGH, N.C., Feb. 20, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The Virtual Heroes Division of Applied Research Associates has released a free download of Virtual Nuclear Security, a 3D game set in a nuclear power plant. Virtual Heroes created the game as a training tool for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Players become safeguards inspectors, following fuel bundles through seven stages of a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) nuclear facility. Training focuses on correctly using safeguards equipment and properly directing the fuel path. The single-player game offers beginner through advanced modes, with opportunities to explore locations such as fuel loading and unloading areas, the reactor hall, and underwater storage. This public release version is designed to engage serious-game enthusiasts, as well as anyone curious about the workings of a nuclear reactor. Says Virtual Heroes Senior Producer Márcia Clover, "We feel honored to have worked with the IAEA on this important project. This virtual training application allows safeguard inspectors, especially more junior ones, to become familiar with a PHWR facility before ever visiting one. This gives them specific information on what to look for when performing a real-world inspection, which makes inspections safer and more effective." Virtual Nuclear Security is available for free download on the Virtual Heroes website: http://www.virtualheroes.biz/phwr Virtual Heroes has won multiple awards for its simulations, serious games and 3D virtual worlds using AAA game-engine technology to provide interactive learning solutions for healthcare, government customers, and corporate training. More information on Virtual Heroes can be found at http://www.virtualheroes.com. Applied Research Associates, Inc. (ARA) was founded 1979 to solve problems of national importance. The company's applied research delivers scientific solutions for national defense, homeland security, aerospace, healthcare, transportation, and manufacturing. With 1,100 Employee Owners at locations in the U.S. and Canada, ARA offers a broad range of technical expertise in defense technologies, computer software and simulation, systems analysis, civil engineering, biomedical engineering, environmental technologies, and blast testing and measurement. The Virtual Heroes Division of Applied Research Associates, Inc. creates collaborative interactive learning solutions for healthcare, federal systems, and corporate training markets. Advanced Learning Technologies (ALT) leverage simulation learning and digital games-based training paradigms to accelerate learning, increase user proficiency, and reduce training costs. Virtual Heroes is located in Raleigh, North Carolina, and Orlando, Florida. For more information, please visit: http://www.virtualheroes.com and http://www.ara.com. A photo accompanying this release is available at: http://www.globenewswire.com/newsroom/prs/?pkgid=42204


Boulyga S.F.,International Atomic Energy Agency
Mass Spectrometry Reviews | Year: 2010

The variations in the isotopic composition of calcium caused by fractionation in heterogeneous systems and by nuclear reactions can provide insight into numerous biological, geological, and cosmic processes, and therefore isotopic analysis finds a wide spectrum of applications in cosmo- and geochemistry, paleoclimatic, nutritional, and biomedical studies. The measurement of calcium isotopic abundances in natural samples has challenged the analysts for more than three decades. Practically all Ca isotopes suffer from significant isobaric interferences, whereas low-abundant isotopes can be particularly affected by neighboring major isotopes. The extent of natural variations of stable isotopes appears to be relatively limited, and highly precise techniques are required to resolve isotopic effects. Isotope fractionation during sample preparation and measurements and instrumental mass bias can significantly exceed small isotope abundance variations in samples, which have to be investigated. Not surprisingly, a TIMS procedure developed by Russell et al. (Russell et al., 1978. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42: 1075-1090) for Ca isotope measurements was considered as revolutionary for isotopic measurements in general, and that approach is used nowadays (with small modifications) for practically all isotopic systems and with different mass spectrometric techniques. Nevertheless, despite several decades of calcium research and corresponding development of mass spectrometers, the available precision and accuracy is still not always sufficient to achieve the challenging goals. The present article discusses figures of merits of presently used analytical methods and instrumentation, and attempts to critically assess their limitations. In Sections 2 and 3, mass spectrometric methods applied to precise stable isotope analysis and to the determination of 41Ca are described. Section 4 contains a short summary of selected applications, and includes tracer experiments and the potential use of biological isotope fractionation in medical studies, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic, and other terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial investigations. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Rehani M.M.,International Atomic Energy Agency
American Journal of Roentgenology | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to presage the upcoming challenges in the area of radiation protection of patients in imaging for different stakeholders, such as dosimetrists, radiation biologists, patients, referring physicians, radiologists, radiographers, medical physicists, and manufacturers. CONCLUSION. Most of the challenges facing different stakeholders are actually based on the contribution required from industry; thus, manufacturers play the greatest role in making patients safer in this century. © American Roentgen Ray Society.


Groning M.,International Atomic Energy Agency
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2011

The calibration of all δ2H and δ18O measurements on the VSMOW/SLAP scale should be performed consistently, based on similar principles, independent of the instrumentation used. The basic principles of a comprehensive calibration strategy are discussed taking water as example. The most common raw data corrections for memory and drift effects are described. Those corrections result in a considerable improvement in data consistency, especially in laboratories analyzing samples of quite variable isotopic composition (e.g. doubly labelled water). The need for a reliable uncertainty assessment for all measurements is discussed and an easy implementation method proposed. A versatile evaluation method based on Excel macros and spreadsheets is presented. It corrects measured raw data for memory and drift effects, performs the calibration and calculates the combined standard uncertainty for each measurement. It allows the easy implementation of the discussed principles in any user laboratory. Following these principles will improve the comparability of data among laboratories. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Kellett M.A.,International Atomic Energy Agency
Applied Radiation and Isotopes | Year: 2012

Organised under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, comprehensive decay scheme evaluations for over eighty actinides and their decay products have been completed on the basis of detailed assessments of the available experimental data. However, despite the application of sound evaluation procedures, such work cannot replace the need to perform and access good quality measurements for adoption. This evaluation programme provided a means of quantifying the quality of the underlying data to ensure that well-focused recommendations could be made for future experimental decay-data studies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Smith D.L.,Argonne National Laboratory | Otuka N.,International Atomic Energy Agency
Nuclear Data Sheets | Year: 2012

This paper has been written to provide experimental nuclear data researchers and data compilers with practical guidance on dealing with experimental nuclear reaction data uncertainties. It outlines some of the properties of random variables as well as principles of data uncertainty estimation, and illustrates them by means of simple examples which are relevant to the field of nuclear data. Emphasis is placed on the importance of generating mathematical models (or algorithms) that can adequately represent individual experiments for the purpose of estimating uncertainties in their results. Several types of uncertainties typically encountered in nuclear data experiments are discussed. The requirements and procedures for reporting information on measurement uncertainties for neutron reaction data, so that they will be useful in practical applications, are addressed. Consideration is given to the challenges and opportunities offered by reports, conference proceedings, journal articles, and computer libraries as vehicles for reporting and documenting numerical experimental data. Finally, contemporary formats used to compile reported experimental covariance data in the widely used library EXFOR are discussed, and several samples of EXFOR files are presented to demonstrate their use. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


News Article | February 24, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

Iranian President Hassan Rouhani gives a press conference in Tehran on Jaunary 17, 2017, to mark the first anniversary of the implementation of the historic nuclear deal (AFP Photo/ATTA KENARE) Vienna (AFP) - Iran is complying with the landmark nuclear deal it sealed with major world powers in 2015, according to a report from the UN watchdog seen by AFP on Friday. The International Atomic Energy Agency addressed key limits set under the agreement, which is under intense scrutiny after the election of US President Donald Trump. The report said Iran is not pursuing construction of its existing heavy water research reactor and has not enriched uranium above an agreed 3.67 percent-limit. And Iran's stockpile of low-enriched uranium -- which can be used for peaceful purposes, but when further processed for a nuclear weapon -- was 101.7 kilos (225 pounds), well below the agreed level of 300 kilos. Senior diplomats said that Tehran recently came close to reaching the limit. Another key condition concerns Iran's level of so-called heavy water, a modified form of water used in certain types of nuclear reactors. The IAEA's latest report said Iran has not exceeded the permitted level of 130 tonnes, as it did briefly during previous periods. Plutonium for use in nuclear weapons can be extracted from fuel rods used in heavy water reactors. In November 2016, the atomic watchdog noted that Iran had crept above the 130-tonne limit. Tehran shipped out the excess amount and its current stock was just above 124 tonnes, the latest report said. "Iran has not conducted any uranium enrichment or related research and development activities" at its Fordo nuclear plant, the IAEA added. Verification has continued as agreed, according to the UN watchdog's fifth quarterly assessment since the pact was struck. Under the accord, Iran dramatically scaled back nuclear activities to put atomic weapons out of its reach -- an aim Tehran always denied having -- in exchange for the relief of crippling sanctions. The agreement extends to at least a year the length of time Tehran would need to make one nuclear bomb's worth of fissile material -- up from a few months prior. Steps taken by Iran included slashing by two-thirds its uranium centrifuges, cutting its stockpile of uranium -- several tonnes before the deal, enough for several bombs -- and removing the core of the Arak reactor which could have given Iran weapons-grade plutonium. But the pact, endorsed by the European Union, has been on shaky ground since the inauguration of Trump, who on the campaign trail last year called it the "worst deal ever negotiated". Tensions between Iran and the United States have been backsliding for months but worsened after Tehran carried out a missile test on January 29, followed by army drills. The White House responded by slapping fresh sanctions on Iran's weapons procurement network. Tehran insists that its military power is for "purely defensive" purposes.


News Article | February 14, 2017
Site: www.theenergycollective.com

There are currently 449 operating nuclear reactors in 31 countries, with a total installed generating capacity of more than 390,000 megawatts (MW), based on data from the International Atomic Energy Agency. Nuclear power plants differ in various ways including reactor types, vessel containments, cooling methods, and dispatch purposes. The largest nuclear plant in the United States, the Palo Verde plant near Phoenix, Arizona, ranks as the ninth-largest operating nuclear plant in the world and has the highest capacity factor among large nuclear plants. The list of the largest nuclear plants has changed in recent years. Three plants in Japan, each with a generating capacity of more than 4,000 MW, were suspended from operation following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi and, like nearly all of Japan’s existing nuclear plants, are not currently generating electricity. Other countries, especially China, are adding large nuclear plants. For instance, the Hongyanhe plant near Dalian, China, had a capacity of 3,183 MW at the end of 2015 but, with the startup of another 1,000 MW reactor in 2016, the plant’s capacity now totals 4,183 MW, with another two reactors under construction. With the idling of Japan’s 7,965 MW Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant, the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station, located on Lake Huron in Ontario, Canada, is currently the world’s largest operating nuclear power plant. Bruce has eight reactors, configured as two separate facilities operating four reactor units each, and has a combined installed capacity of 6,274 MW. Of the top ten operating nuclear plants in the world, the United States’ Palo Verde plant has the fewest number of reactors (three) but has the highest capacity factor, a measure of plant utilization. Plants that operate more have higher capacity factors and produce more electricity per unit of generating capacity. Based on the most recent five years of data (2011–15), Palo Verde’s capacity factor averaged 92%, while other large nuclear plants’ capacity factors ranged from 73% to 88%. Over the past 15 years, nuclear capacity factors in the United States have typically remained above 90%, which is higher than nuclear plants in other regions of the world. The duration of refueling and maintenance outages is a significant factor in why U.S. capacity factors are so high. Nuclear reactors undergo routine maintenance and refueling outages about once every 18 to 24 months. Although a nuclear reactor can be refueled in as little as 10 days, outages often last longer, as operators conduct other noncritical maintenance work simultaneously to minimize overall operational downtime. In the United States, the average duration of refueling outages has been steadily declining. In the early 1990s, refueling-related outages lasted nearly three months. In spring 2016, refueling outages in the United States averaged 29 days. Using data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, EIA maintains a tool displaying the daily operating status of each nuclear plant in the United States.

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