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Sidibe M.,Joint United Nations Programme on HIV AIDS | Zuniga J.M.,International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Clinical Infectious Diseases

We have the tools at our disposal to significantly bend AIDS-related morbidity and mortality curves and reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence. It is thus essential to redouble our efforts to reach the goal of placing 15 million people on life-saving and-enhancing antiretroviral therapy (ART) by 2015. In reaching this milestone, we can write a new chapter in the history of global health, demonstrating that a robust, multidimensional response can succeed against a complex pandemic that presents as many social and political challenges as it does medical ones. This milestone is also critical to advance our ultimate goal of ending AIDS by maximizing the therapeutic and preventive effects of ART, which translates into a world in which AIDS-related deaths and new HIV infections are exceedingly rare. © 2014 The Author . Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Source

Battalora L.A.,Colorado School of Mines | Young B.,International Association of Providers of AIDS Care | Young B.,Apex Family Medicine and Research | Overton E.T.,University of Alabama at Birmingham
Current Infectious Disease Reports

The course of HIV infection has been dramatically transformed by the success of antiretroviral therapy from a universally fatal infection to a manageable chronic disease. With these advances in HIV disease management, age-related comorbidities, including metabolic bone disease, have become more prominent in the routine care of persons living with HIV infection. Recent data have highlighted the role of HIV infection, initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and hepatitis C virus coinfection in bone mineral density loss and fracture incidence. Additionally, the underlying mechanism for the development of metabolic bone disease in the setting of HIV infection has received considerable attention. This review highlights recently published and presented data and synthesizes the current state of the field. These data highlight the need for proactive prevention for fragility fractures. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Suthar A.B.,Stellenbosch University | Granich R.M.,International Association of Providers of AIDS Care | Kato M.,World Health Organization | Nsanzimana S.,Rwanda Biomedical Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection includes acute, early, chronic, and late stages. Acute HIV infection lasts approximately 3 weeks and early HIV infection, which includes acute HIV infection, lasts approximately 7 weeks. Many testing and blood screening algorithms detect HIV antibodies about 3 weeks after HIV infection. Incidence estimates are based on results of modeling, cohort studies, surveillance, and/or assays. Viral load is the key modifiable risk factor for HIV transmission and peaks during acute and early HIV infection. Empirical evidence characterizing the impact of acute and early HIV infection on the spread of the HIV epidemic are limited. Time trends of HIV prevalence collected from concentrated and generalized epidemics suggest that acute and early HIV infection may have a limited role in population HIV transmission. Collectively, these data suggest that acute and early HIV infection is relatively short and does not currently require fundamentally different programmatic approaches to manage the HIV/AIDS epidemic in most settings. Research and surveillance will inform which epidemic contexts and phases may require tailored strategies for these stages of HIV infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Source

Pineirua A.,Emory University | Pineirua A.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran | Sierra-Madero J.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran | Cahn P.,Juan a Fernandez Hospital | And 5 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases

Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), also known as highly active antiretroviral therapy, provides clinical and immunological benefits for people living with HIV and is an effective strategy to prevent HIV transmission at the individual level. Early initiation of ART as part of a test and treat approach might decrease HIV transmission at the population level, but to do so the HIV continuum of care, from diagnosis to viral suppression, should be optimised. Access to ART has improved greatly in Latin America, and about 600 000 people are on treatment. However, health-care systems are deficient in different stages of the HIV continuum of care, and in some cases only a small proportion of individuals achieve the desired outcome of virological suppression. At present, data for most Latin American countries are not sufficient to build reliable metrics. Available data and estimates show that many people living with HIV in Latin America are unaware of their status, are diagnosed late, and enter into care late. Stigma, administrative barriers, and economic limitations seem to be important determinants of late diagnosis and failure to be linked to and retained in care. Policy makers need reliable data to optimise the HIV care continuum and improve individual-based and population-based outcomes of ART in Latin America. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Zuniga J.M.,International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care

Background: An estimated 50% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) globally are unaware of their status. Among those who know their HIV status, many do not receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a timely manner, fail to remain engaged in care, or do not achieve sustained viral suppression. Barriers across the HIV care continuum prevent PLHIV from achieving the therapeutic and preventive effects of ART. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted, and 6132 articles, including randomized controlled trials, observational studies with or without comparators, cross-sectional studies, and descriptive documents, met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 1047 articles were used to generate 36 recommendations to optimize the HIV care continuum for adults and adolescents. Recommendations: Recommendations are provided for interventions to optimize the HIV care environment; increase HIV testing and linkage to care, treatment coverage, retention in care, and viral suppression; and monitor the HIV care continuum. © The Author(s) 2015. Source

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