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Nowotny J.,University of Western Sydney | Veziroglu T.N.,International Association for Hydrogen Energy
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

The present work considers the impact of hydrogen fuel on the environment within the cycles of its generation and combustion. Hydrogen has been portrayed by the media as a fuel that is environmentally clean because its combustion results in the formation of harmless water. However, hydrogen first must be generated. The effect of hydrogen generation on the environment depends on the production process and the related by-products. Hydrogen available on the market at present is mainly generated by using steam reforming of natural gas, which is a fossil fuel. Its by-product is CO2, which is a greenhouse gas and its emission results in global warming and climate change. Therefore, hydrogen generated from fossil fuels is contributing to global warming to the similar extent as direct combustion of the fossil fuels. On the other hand hydrogen obtained from renewable energy, such solar energy, is environmentally clean during the cycles of its generation and combustion. Consequently, the introduction of hydrogen economy must be accompanied by the development of hydrogen that is environmentally friendly. The present work considers several aspects related to the generation and utilisation of hydrogen obtained by steam reforming and solar energy conversion (solar-hydrogen). © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lee D.-H.,National Taiwan Ocean University | Lee D.-J.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Lee D.-J.,Fudan University | Veziroglu A.,International Association for Hydrogen Energy
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

Biohydrogen is considered as an attractive clean energy source due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. Analyzing various economic scenarios can help decision makers to optimize development strategies for the biohydrogen sector. This study surveys econometric models of biohydrogen development, including input-out models, life-cycle assessment approach, computable general equilibrium models, linear programming models and impact pathway approach. Fundamentals of each model were briefly reviewed to highlight their advantages and disadvantages. The input-output model and the simplified economic input-output life-cycle assessment model proved most suitable for economic analysis of biohydrogen energy development. A sample analysis using input-output model for forecasting biohydrogen development in the United States is given. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Veziroglu A.,International Association for Hydrogen Energy | MacArio R.,University of Lisbon
International Journal of Green Energy | Year: 2014

In this study, system dynamics (SD) modeling is used as a tool to evaluate the transition to hydrogen within the transportation sector and its effect in reducing of health expenditures. SD modeling is a useful tool for researchers when the system they are studying is large, complex, containing interdependent variables. In order to understand why SD modeling is necessary to study the transition toward hydrogen energy for transport, we must first discuss the significance of ambivalence and the meaning of transition. Then, we can apply the transition framework to understand the problems in the transportation sector. This will justify the use of SD to explore the central problem of transportation sector transition to hydrogen energy and its benefits. This paper provides a short background on SD, explains its application to hydrogen powered transportation, and health benefits for USA, China and India. © 2014 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Veziroglu A.,International Association for Hydrogen Energy | Macario R.,University of Lisbon
International Journal of Energy Research | Year: 2013

The world consists of many countries having differences in many areas, ranging from size to economic level, from population to education, etc. Consequently, they are not going to convert to hydrogen-fueled transportation at the same time. Some will have the right conditions to convert to clean hydrogen transportation early, and other countries will have conditions which will result in a delay in conversion to hydrogen-fueled transportation. In order to find out which countries are the candidates for early conversion to hydrogen fueled transportation and which countries might convert to hydrogen-fueled transportation later, an analysis has been carried out covering almost all of the countries in the world. Results indicate that the countries with higher income per capita and smaller size could convert to hydrogen-fueled transportation earlier. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Nowotny J.,University of Western Sydney | Bak T.,University of Western Sydney | Chu D.,University of New South Wales | Fiechter S.,Helmholtz Center Berlin | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2014

Owing to the increasingly apparent climate change, it becomes imperative to use renewable energy in the production of fuel that is environmentally friendly. At the same time, there is a need to introduce the related education programs to develop the skills of the technical staff working at the front line of rapidly developing renewable energy technologies. Hydrogen is expected to be the fuel in the near future. At present hydrogen fuel is mainly produced using steam reforming of methane (SRM). However, hydrogen generation using the SRM results in emission of greenhouse gases and climate change. Therefore, there is a common consensus that the SRM technology will soon be challenged by the technologies of solar hydrogen generation using photoelectrochemical cells (PEC). However, the PEC technology will be the ultimate winner only if the effects related to climate change and pollution are fully monetised. While such radical development is difficult for implementation due to economic reasons, the increasingly urgent need to reduce climate change dictates the need to increase competitiveness of the PEC method. This imposes the need to increase the efficiency of the solar energy conversion and reduce the costs of the related raw materials and devices. The development of renewable energy-related technologies, such as those related to solar hydrogen, imposes the need to introduce education programs in order to train technical and research staff working at the front line of rapidly developing sustainable energy systems. The present work considers such programs addressing a range of energy-related topics, such as hydrogen energy, electrochemical energy, photoelectrochemical energy and alternative renewable energy as well as industrial ecology and energy policy. It is concluded that implementation of these programs is urgently needed in order to protect the environment through sustainable development. © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nejat Veziroglu T.,International Association for Hydrogen Energy
WHEC 2012 Conference Proceedings - 19th World Hydrogen Energy Conference | Year: 2012

This is the opening address given at the Opening Session of the 19 World Hydrogen Energy Conference, 3-7 June 2012, Toronto, Canada. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Veziroglu A.,International Association for Hydrogen Energy | MacArio R.,University of Lisbon
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

Hydrogen fueled fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) will play a major role as a part of the change toward the hydrogen based energy system. When combined with the right source of energy, fuel cells have the highest potential efficiencies and lowest potential emissions of any vehicular power source. As a result, extensive work into the development of hydrogen fueled FCVs is taking place. The aim of this paper is to highlight some of the research and development work which has occurred in the past five years on fuel cell vehicle technology, with a focus on economic and environmental concerns. It is observed that the current efforts are divided up into several parts. The performance, durability, and cost of fuel cell technology continue to be improved, and some fuel cells are currently ready to be mounted on vehicles and tested. Environmental and economic assessments of the entire hydrogen supply chain, including fuel cell end-use, are being carried out by groups of researchers around the world. It is currently believed that fuel cells need at least five more years of testing and improvement before large scale commercialization can begin. Economic and environmental analyses show that FCVs will likely be both economically competitive and environmentally benign. Indeed, the transition of the transportation sector to the use of hydrogen FCVs will represent one of the biggest steps toward the hydrogen economy. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Schur D.V.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Zaginaichenko S.Y.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Savenko A.F.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Bogolepov V.A.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

The fullerene is the fourth allotropic modification of carbon and its properties, as volume, gravimetric and electrochemical capacities, are in excess of many similar properties of metal hydrides and hydrocarbons. The solution of the problem of the reversible hydrogenation of each carbon atom in the frame of fullerene molecule will allow to create the hydrogen storage with the capacity up to 7.7 wt.% H. A series of experiments have been conducted to evaluate the full hydrogenation of fullerite C60; hydrofullerenes have been produced experimentally with the variable content of hydrogen. The optimum regime of C60 hydrogenation has been determined resulting in the full hydrogenation of fullerene molecule C60. As was apparent after the tests, the sequence of formation of hydrogenated fullerene molecule C 60H60 in fullerite has been going in the following order: the molecular hydrogen dissolution in octahedral interstices of fcc lattice of fullerite, the dissociation of hydrogen molecules in going from octa- to tetrahedral interstices, the interaction of hydrogen atoms with fullerene molecule. It has been demonstrated that chemisorption process of hydrogen by molecule C60 is limited by diffusive processes in fullerite after hydrogen concentration conformed to C60H36. The spectral analysis have shown that the second stage process of chemisorption follows the compressive shell model. The suggestion of the model of processes going on at the interaction between H2 and fullerite C60 has been made. The mechanism for the definition of hydrogenation degree of molecule C60 has been proposed in the present paper. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Petrov K.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Baykara S.Z.,Yildiz Technical University | Ebrasu D.,National Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies ICIT | Gulin M.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Veziroglu A.,International Association for Hydrogen Energy
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

In the deeper parts of the Black Sea basin, water is anoxic. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) occurs naturally, and its concentration is nearly constant, around 9.5 mg/L at 1500 m depth. Its high solubility, and the existing chemical environment facilitate its accumulation and containment in the seawater, and its extraction poses a challenge. Possibility of hydrogen and sulfur production from H2S contained in the waters of Black Sea is investigated conceptually. A multistage process is considered which involves extraction of seawater, adsorption of H2S, electrochemical production of hydrogen and polysulfides; fresh water production by desalination of seawater and further hydrogen production from the resulting salty solution through chlorine-alkaline electrolysis. Some consideration is included regarding the economic and environmental aspects of the process. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Do Sacramento E.M.,Federal University of Ceará | Carvalho P.C.M.,Federal University of Ceará | de Lima L.C.,State University of Ceará | Veziroglu T.N.,International Association for Hydrogen Energy
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

Fossil fuels use has caused serious environmental impacts worldwide, mainly related with the greenhouse effect intensification. One strategy to mitigate such impacts is the use of hydrogen in combustion processes. Additionally, hydrogen can be utilized as an energy vector for storage purposes and is also classified as a fuel of the future, due to the low emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. The present paper shows results of a computational simulation carried out for the state of Ceará, Brazil, considering scenarios for the use of electrolytic hydrogen obtained with the use of photovoltaic (PV) modules and wind energy converters, as a substitute of fluid fossil fuels. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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