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Nowotny J.,University of Western Sydney | Bak T.,University of Western Sydney | Chu D.,University of New South Wales | Fiechter S.,Helmholtz Center Berlin | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2014

Owing to the increasingly apparent climate change, it becomes imperative to use renewable energy in the production of fuel that is environmentally friendly. At the same time, there is a need to introduce the related education programs to develop the skills of the technical staff working at the front line of rapidly developing renewable energy technologies. Hydrogen is expected to be the fuel in the near future. At present hydrogen fuel is mainly produced using steam reforming of methane (SRM). However, hydrogen generation using the SRM results in emission of greenhouse gases and climate change. Therefore, there is a common consensus that the SRM technology will soon be challenged by the technologies of solar hydrogen generation using photoelectrochemical cells (PEC). However, the PEC technology will be the ultimate winner only if the effects related to climate change and pollution are fully monetised. While such radical development is difficult for implementation due to economic reasons, the increasingly urgent need to reduce climate change dictates the need to increase competitiveness of the PEC method. This imposes the need to increase the efficiency of the solar energy conversion and reduce the costs of the related raw materials and devices. The development of renewable energy-related technologies, such as those related to solar hydrogen, imposes the need to introduce education programs in order to train technical and research staff working at the front line of rapidly developing sustainable energy systems. The present work considers such programs addressing a range of energy-related topics, such as hydrogen energy, electrochemical energy, photoelectrochemical energy and alternative renewable energy as well as industrial ecology and energy policy. It is concluded that implementation of these programs is urgently needed in order to protect the environment through sustainable development. © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nejat Veziroglu T.,International Association for Hydrogen Energy
WHEC 2012 Conference Proceedings - 19th World Hydrogen Energy Conference | Year: 2012

This is the opening address given at the Opening Session of the 19 World Hydrogen Energy Conference, 3-7 June 2012, Toronto, Canada. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Lee D.-H.,National Taiwan Ocean University | Lee D.-J.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Lee D.-J.,Fudan University | Veziroglu A.,International Association for Hydrogen Energy
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

Biohydrogen is considered as an attractive clean energy source due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. Analyzing various economic scenarios can help decision makers to optimize development strategies for the biohydrogen sector. This study surveys econometric models of biohydrogen development, including input-out models, life-cycle assessment approach, computable general equilibrium models, linear programming models and impact pathway approach. Fundamentals of each model were briefly reviewed to highlight their advantages and disadvantages. The input-output model and the simplified economic input-output life-cycle assessment model proved most suitable for economic analysis of biohydrogen energy development. A sample analysis using input-output model for forecasting biohydrogen development in the United States is given. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Veziroglu A.,International Association for Hydrogen Energy | Macario R.,University of Lisbon
International Journal of Energy Research | Year: 2013

The world consists of many countries having differences in many areas, ranging from size to economic level, from population to education, etc. Consequently, they are not going to convert to hydrogen-fueled transportation at the same time. Some will have the right conditions to convert to clean hydrogen transportation early, and other countries will have conditions which will result in a delay in conversion to hydrogen-fueled transportation. In order to find out which countries are the candidates for early conversion to hydrogen fueled transportation and which countries might convert to hydrogen-fueled transportation later, an analysis has been carried out covering almost all of the countries in the world. Results indicate that the countries with higher income per capita and smaller size could convert to hydrogen-fueled transportation earlier. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Schur D.V.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Zaginaichenko S.Y.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Savenko A.F.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Bogolepov V.A.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

The fullerene is the fourth allotropic modification of carbon and its properties, as volume, gravimetric and electrochemical capacities, are in excess of many similar properties of metal hydrides and hydrocarbons. The solution of the problem of the reversible hydrogenation of each carbon atom in the frame of fullerene molecule will allow to create the hydrogen storage with the capacity up to 7.7 wt.% H. A series of experiments have been conducted to evaluate the full hydrogenation of fullerite C60; hydrofullerenes have been produced experimentally with the variable content of hydrogen. The optimum regime of C60 hydrogenation has been determined resulting in the full hydrogenation of fullerene molecule C60. As was apparent after the tests, the sequence of formation of hydrogenated fullerene molecule C 60H60 in fullerite has been going in the following order: the molecular hydrogen dissolution in octahedral interstices of fcc lattice of fullerite, the dissociation of hydrogen molecules in going from octa- to tetrahedral interstices, the interaction of hydrogen atoms with fullerene molecule. It has been demonstrated that chemisorption process of hydrogen by molecule C60 is limited by diffusive processes in fullerite after hydrogen concentration conformed to C60H36. The spectral analysis have shown that the second stage process of chemisorption follows the compressive shell model. The suggestion of the model of processes going on at the interaction between H2 and fullerite C60 has been made. The mechanism for the definition of hydrogenation degree of molecule C60 has been proposed in the present paper. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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