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Consonni D.,Epidemiology Unit | Matteis S.D.,Heart Health | Pesatori A.C.,Epidemiology Unit | Bertazzi P.A.,Epidemiology Unit | And 42 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Bricklayers may be exposed to several lung carcinogens, including crystalline silica and asbestos. Previous studies that analyzed lung cancer risk among these workers had several study design limitations. We examined lung cancer risk among bricklayers within SYNERGY, a large international pooled analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and the joint effects of occupational carcinogens. For men ever employed as bricklayers we estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for study center, age, lifetime smoking history and employment in occupations with exposures to known or suspected lung carcinogens. Among 15,608 cases and 18,531 controls, there were 695 cases and 469 controls who had ever worked as bricklayers (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.28-1.68). In studies using population controls the OR was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.32-1.81, 540/349 cases/controls), while it was 1.24 (95% CI: 0.93-1.64, 155/120 cases/controls) in hospital-based studies. There was a clear positive trend with length of employment (p<0.001). The relative risk was higher for squamous (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.42-1.98, 309 cases) and small cell carcinomas (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.44-2.20, 140 cases), than for adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.95-1.43, 150 cases) (p-homogeneity: 0.0007). ORs were still elevated after additional adjustment for education and in analyses using blue collar workers as referents. This study provided robust evidence of increased lung cancer risk in bricklayers. Although non-causal explanations cannot be completely ruled out, the association is plausible in view of the potential for exposure to several carcinogens, notably crystalline silica and to a lesser extent asbestos. © 2014 UICC. Source

Dehler S.,Zurich and Zug Cancer RegistryUniversity Hospital ZurichZurich Switzerland | Korol D.,Zurich and Zug Cancer RegistryUniversity Hospital ZurichZurich Switzerland | Rohrmann S.,Chronic Disease Epidemiology | Ohgaki H.,International Agency for Research on CancerLyon France
Cancer | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: A population-based analysis of patients with glioma diagnosed between 1980 and 1994 in the Canton of Zurich in Switzerland confirmed the overall poor prognosis of glioblastoma. To explore changes in outcome, registry data were reevaluated for patients diagnosed between 2005 and 2009. METHODS: Patients with glioblastoma who were diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 were identified by the Zurich and Zug Cancer Registry. The prognostic significance of epidemiological and clinical data, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1)R132H mutation status, and O6 methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: A total of 264 patients with glioblastoma were identified, for an annual incidence of 3.9 compared with the previous incidence of 3.7. The mean age of the patients at the time of diagnosis was 59.5 years in the current cohort compared with 61.3 years previously. The overall survival (OS) rate was 46.4% at 1 year, 22.5% at 2 years, and 14.4% at 3 years in the current study compared with 17.7% at 1 year, 3.3% at 2 years, and 1.2% at 3 years as reported previously. The median OS for all patients with glioblastoma was 11.5 months compared with 4.9 months in the former patient population. The median OS was 1.9 months for best supportive care, 6.2 months for radiotherapy alone, 6.7 months for temozolomide alone, and 17.0 months for radiotherapy plus temozolomide. Multivariate analysis revealed age, Karnofsky performance score, extent of tumor resection, first-line treatment, year of diagnosis, and MGMT promoter methylation status were associated with survival in patients with IDH1R132H-nonmutant glioblastoma. CONCLUSIONS: The OS of patients newly diagnosed with glioblastoma in the Canton of Zurich in Switzerland markedly improved from 1980 through 1994 to 2005 through 2009. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Source

Shi J.,Vanderbilt University | Zhang Y.,Vanderbilt University | Zheng W.,Vanderbilt University | Milne R.L.,University of Vic | And 67 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2016

Previous genome-wide association studies among women of European ancestry identified two independent breast cancer susceptibility loci represented by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs13281615 and rs11780156 at 8q24. A fine-mapping study across 2.06 Mb (chr8:127,561,724-129,624,067, hg19) in 55,540 breast cancer cases and 51,168 controls within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium was conducted. Three additional independent association signals in women of European ancestry, represented by rs35961416 (OR=0.95, 95% CI=0.93-0.97, conditional p=5.8 × 10-6), rs7815245 (OR=0.94, 95% CI=0.91-0.96, conditional p=1.1 × 10-6) and rs2033101 (OR=1.05, 95% CI=1.02-1.07, conditional p=1.1 × 10-4) were found. Integrative analysis using functional genomic data from the Roadmap Epigenomics, the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project, the Cancer Genome Atlas and other public resources implied that SNPs rs7815245 in Signal 3, and rs1121948 in Signal 5 (in linkage disequilibrium with rs11780156, r2=0.77), were putatively functional variants for two of the five independent association signals. The results highlighted multiple 8q24 variants associated with breast cancer susceptibility in women of European ancestry. © 2016 UICC. Source

Conway D.I.,A-Life Medical | Brenner D.R.,International Agency for Research on CancerLyon France | Mcmahon A.D.,A-Life Medical | Macpherson L.M.,A-Life Medical | And 55 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Low socioeconomic status has been reported to be associated with head and neck cancer risk. However, previous studies have been too small to examine the associations by cancer subsite, age, sex, global region and calendar time and to explain the association in terms of behavioral risk factors. Individual participant data of 23,964 cases with head and neck cancer and 31,954 controls from 31 studies in 27 countries pooled with random effects models. Overall, low education was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 2.02 - 3.09). Overall one-third of the increased risk was not explained by differences in the distribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors; and it remained elevated among never users of tobacco and nondrinkers (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.13 - 2.31). More of the estimated education effect was not explained by cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors: in women than in men, in older than younger groups, in the oropharynx than in other sites, in South/Central America than in Europe/North America and was strongest in countries with greater income inequality. Similar findings were observed for the estimated effect of low versus high household income. The lowest levels of income and educational attainment were associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of head and neck cancer, which is not entirely explained by differences in the distributions of behavioral risk factors for these cancers and which varies across cancer sites, sexes, countries and country income inequality levels. © 2014 UICC. Source

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