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News Article | May 2, 2017

"The findings from this analysis do not support a finding that formaldehyde exposure is a cause of leukemia," said Harvey Checkoway, Ph.D., lead author of the reanalysis and Professor of Family Medicine & Public Health at the University of California, San Diego. "This reanalysis identifies how critical data interpretation is, given that the risk assessments that rely on these analyses ultimately set occupational and environmental exposure standards." Checkoway and his colleagues performed analyses of raw data in an attempt to replicate findings reported from a NCI cohort mortality study of workers from 10 US plants producing or using formaldehyde. The NCI study has been influential in the classification of formaldehyde as a human leukemogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) National Toxicology Program (NTP). In the original analysis NCI investigators defined "peak" exposure to formaldehyde on a relative basis with respect to individual workers' exposures histories. This complicates data interpretations. Using this definition, analyses of updated mortality data for the NCI cohort reported tentative associations of "peak" exposures with myeloid leukemia (ML) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) that are inconsistent with other studies. The new research found no association between acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and cumulative, average or frequency of "peak" exposures. This became clear in the new analysis where AML and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) were evaluated separately, as two types of leukemia are different diseases and have different risk factors. The award-winning Checkoway et al. study conducted more comprehensive analyses of associations of specific lymphohematopoietic malignancies (LHM), especially AML, with peak exposure, using a standard definition of peak exposure. Peak was defined in terms of absolute exposure dose and duration, which permitted direct comparisons among similar studies, strengthening the analysis. Checkoway et al. concluded that no clear associations for peak or cumulative formaldehyde exposures were observed in this cohort for any of the specific LHM, including AML. The result of this analysis adds to the weight of evidence that formaldehyde exposure in the workplace does not cause AML, the LHM of greatest concern. It also underscores the need to ensure new information is effectively considered and incorporated into chemical assessments by IARC, NTP and other agencies. "Having this work recognized by ACOEM as a significant contribution in occupational medicine shows how important these findings are to understanding and interpreting the formaldehyde science," said Kimberly White, Ph.D., Senior Director of the American Chemistry Council Formaldehyde Panel. To learn more, view this fact sheet or visit The American Chemistry Council (ACC) represents the leading companies engaged in the business of chemistry. ACC members apply the science of chemistry to make innovative products and services that make people's lives better, healthier and safer. ACC is committed to improved environmental, health and safety performance through Responsible Care®, common sense advocacy designed to address major public policy issues, and health and environmental research and product testing. The business of chemistry is a $797 billion enterprise and a key element of the nation's economy. It is the nation's largest exporter, accounting for fourteen percent of all U.S. exports. Chemistry companies are among the largest investors in research and development. Safety and security have always been primary concerns of ACC members, and they have intensified their efforts, working closely with government agencies to improve security and to defend against any threat to the nation's critical infrastructure. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:

CLARENCE, N.Y.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--22nd Century Group, Inc. (NYSE MKT: XXII), a plant biotechnology company that is focused on tobacco harm reduction and cannabis research, announced today that K. Michael Cummings, PhD, MPH, Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Medical University of South Carolina, will present the keynote address at 22nd Century Group’s annual shareholder meeting. The annual shareholder meeting will be held on Saturday, April 29, 2017, at 2:00PM at the Buffalo Club in downtown Buffalo, New York. The annual meeting will be open to shareholders of record as of the close of business on March 10, 2017. Recognized internationally for his work in tobacco epidemiology and smoking cessation, Dr. Cummings is often called on to guide global tobacco control policy initiatives. Dr. Cummings co-leads the Tobacco Policy and Control research program at the Hollings Cancer Center of the Medical University of South Carolina. As the principal investigator of a project funded by the National Institutes of Health, Dr. Cummings works to evaluate the psychosocial, behavioral, and product-related impacts of the tobacco control policies which are articulated through the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This international project involves more than 20 countries and over 100 research scientists. Over a 30-year period, Dr. Cummings has served as a Cancer Research Scientist and later the Chairman of the Roswell Park Cancer Institute’s Department of Health Behavior where he helped to establish the Smokers’ Quitline service in the State of New York. A prolific scientific researcher, Dr. Cummings has authored or co-authored over 420 scientific papers, including the landmark reports for the Office of the Surgeon General, the National Cancer Institute, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Dr. Cummings is heavily involved in smoking cessation and nicotine addiction research, co-authoring a report which demonstrated improved stop smoking results when smokers combined the use of Very Low Nicotine tobacco cigarettes with the nicotine patch: Tob Res. 2007. 9(11):1139-1146. In 2009, Dr. Cummings’ extensive body of work in smoking behavior and many contributions to the field of public health earned him the prestigious Luther Terry Award, which is presented by the American Cancer Society. Shareholders are encouraged to attend 22nd Century’s annual shareholder meeting on April 29, 2017 and welcome to Dr. Cummings as he provides insight into the science and policy surrounding tobacco control. 22nd Century is a plant biotechnology company focused on technology which allows it to increase or decrease the level of nicotine in tobacco plants and the level of cannabinoids in cannabis plants through genetic engineering and plant breeding. The Company’s primary mission in tobacco is to reduce the harm caused by smoking. The Company’s primary mission in cannabis is to develop proprietary cannabis strains for important new medicines and agricultural crops. Visit and for more information. Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements: This press release contains forward-looking information, including all statements that are not statements of historical fact regarding the intent, belief or current expectations of 22nd Century Group, Inc., its directors or its officers with respect to the contents of this press release, including but not limited to our future revenue expectations. The words “may,” “would,” “will,” “expect,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “intend” and similar expressions and variations thereof are intended to identify forward-looking statements. We cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity or performance. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date that they were made. These cautionary statements should be considered with any written or oral forward-looking statements that we may issue in the future. Except as required by applicable law, including the securities laws of the United States, we do not intend to update any of the forward-looking statements to conform these statements to reflect actual results, later events or circumstances, or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should carefully review and consider the various disclosures made by us in our annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016, filed on March 8, 2017, including the section entitled “Risk Factors,” and our other reports filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission which attempt to advise interested parties of the risks and factors that may affect our business, financial condition, results of operation and cash flows. If one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or if the underlying assumptions prove incorrect, our actual results may vary materially from those expected or projected.

Torre L.A.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | Bray F.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Siegel R.L.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | Ferlay J.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | And 2 more authors.
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2015

Cancer constitutes an enormous burden on society in more and less economically developed countries alike. The occurrence of cancer is increasing because of the growth and aging of the population, as well as an increasing prevalence of established risk factors such as smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, and changing reproductive patterns associated with urbanization and economic development. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, about 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths occurred in 2012 worldwide. Over the years, the burden has shifted to less developed countries, which currently account for about 57% of cases and 65% of cancer deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among males in both more and less developed countries, and has surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among females in more developed countries; breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among females in less developed countries. Other leading causes of cancer death in more developed countries include colorectal cancer among males and females and prostate cancer among males. In less developed countries, liver and stomach cancer among males and cervical cancer among females are also leading causes of cancer death. Although incidence rates for all cancers combined are nearly twice as high in more developed than in less developed countries in both males and females, mortality rates are only 8% to 15% higher in more developed countries. This disparity reflects regional differences in the mix of cancers, which is affected by risk factors and detection practices, and/or the availability of treatment. Risk factors associated with the leading causes of cancer death include tobacco use (lung, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancer), overweight/obesity and physical inactivity (breast and colorectal cancer), and infection (liver, stomach, and cervical cancer). A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly applying effective prevention measures, such as tobacco control, vaccination, and the use of early detection tests. CA Cancer J Clin 2015;65: 87-108. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

Wild C.P.,International Agency for Research on Cancer
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2012

Noncommunicable diseases were estimated to claim more than 36 million lives worldwide in 2008. Major contributors to this burden were cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes. The United Nations General Assembly held a high-level meeting on noncommunicable diseases in September 2011 for heads of states and governments, conscious of the projected increases in disease incidence, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This meeting followed the Special Session on HIV/AIDS in 2001, the only other high-level meeting to discuss a health topic and orient the global political agenda toward a growing threat to human development. Proposed strategies for control of noncommunicable diseases focused mainly on the shared risk factors of tobacco, harmful use of alcohol, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet. However, for cancer, a broader response is required. Notably, the heterogeneity of cancer with respect to its geographical distribution, etiology, and pathology all demand a more nuanced, regional, or even local approach. Preparations for the meeting elicited enormous attention from governments and nongovernmental organizations, but the engagement of the research community was less evident. This commentary calls for the involvement of the cancer research community in response to the further action detailed in the United Nations Political Declaration emanating from the meeting, identifies a number of cancer-specific priorities, including vaccination against hepatitis B virus and human papillomavirus, cervical cancer screening, and early detection of breast cancer, and suggests areas where cancer research can provide the evidence base for cancer control, notably in improving the quality and coverage of cancer registration, elucidating cancer etiology, and evaluating interventions, including their implementation in low-resource health-care settings. Finally, the need for global cooperation in developing a research agenda for low- and middleincome countries is highlighted. © The Author 2009.

Vineis P.,Imperial College London | Vineis P.,HuGeF Foundation | Wild C.P.,International Agency for Research on Cancer
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Cancer is a global and growing, but not uniform, problem. An increasing proportion of the burden is falling on low-income and middle-income countries because of not only demographic change but also a transition in risk factors, whereby the consequences of the globalisation of economies and behaviours are adding to an existing burden of cancers of infectious origin. We argue that primary prevention is a particularly effective way to fight cancer, with between a third and a half of cancers being preventable on the basis of present knowledge of risk factors. Primary prevention has several advantages: the effectiveness could have benefits for people other than those directly targeted, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is likely to prevent other non-communicable diseases, and the cause could be removed or reduced in the long term-eg, through regulatory measures against occupational or environmental exposures (ie, the preventive effort does not need to be renewed with every generation, which is especially important when resources are in short supply). Primary prevention must therefore be prioritised as an integral part of global cancer control.

Jemal A.,Surveillance Research | Bray F.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Center M.M.,Surveillance Research | Ferlay J.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | And 2 more authors.
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2011

The global burden of cancer continues to increase largely because of the aging and growth of the world population alongside an increasing adoption of cancer-causing behaviors, particularly smoking, in economically developing countries. Based on the GLOBOCAN 2008 estimates, about 12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths are estimated to have occurred in 2008; of these, 56% of the cases and 64% of the deaths occurred in the economically developing world. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females, accounting for 23% of the total cancer cases and 14% of the cancer deaths. Lung cancer is the leading cancer site in males, comprising 17% of the total new cancer cases and 23% of the total cancer deaths. Breast cancer is now also the leading cause of cancer death among females in economically developing countries, a shift from the previous decade during which the most common cause of cancer death was cervical cancer. Further, the mortality burden for lung cancer among females in developing countries is as high as the burden for cervical cancer, with each accounting for 11% of the total female cancer deaths. Although overall cancer incidence rates in the developing world are half those seen in the developed world in both sexes, the overall cancer mortality rates are generally similar. Cancer survival tends to be poorer in developing countries, most likely because of a combination of a late stage at diagnosis and limited access to timely and standard treatment. A substantial proportion of the worldwide burden of cancer could be prevented through the application of existing cancer control knowledge and by implementing programs for tobacco control, vaccination (for liver and cervical cancers), and early detection and treatment, as well as public health campaigns promoting physical activity and a healthier dietary intake. Clinicians, public health professionals, and policy makers can play an active role in accelerating the application of such interventions globally. ©2011 American Cancer Society, Inc.

Plummer M.,International Agency for Research on Cancer
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

A large cross-sectional survey suggests an association between H. pylori gastritis and colonic neoplasms, but the results should be interpreted with caution. © 2013 by the American College of Gastroenterology.

Olivier M.,International Agency for Research on Cancer
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology | Year: 2010

Somatic mutations in the TP53 gene are one of the most frequent alterations in human cancers, and germline mutations are the underlying cause of Li-Fraumeni syndrome, which predisposes to a wide spectrum of early-onset cancers. Most mutations are single-base substitutions distributed throughout the coding sequence. Their diverse types and positions may inform on the nature of mutagenic mechanisms involved in cancer etiology. TP53 mutations are also potential prognostic and predictive markers, as well as targets for pharmacological intervention. All mutations found in human cancers are compiled in the IARC TP53 Database ( A human TP53 knockin mouse model (Hupki mouse) provides an experimental model to study mutagenesis in the context of a human TP53 sequence. Here, we summarize current knowledge on TP53 gene variations observed in human cancers and populations, and current clinical applications derived from this knowledge.

Partensky C.,International Agency for Research on Cancer
Pancreas | Year: 2013

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) imposes a heavy burden of disease, especially in the most developed countries, and the mortality rate has not declined over the past decades. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of PDAC, which may help to improve early detection, prognosis, and treatment efficiency. This review focuses on PDAC epidemiology and on recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of PDAC carcino-genesis. We discuss the cancer stem cell hypothesis, which provides a rationale for the pervasive resistance of PDAC to chemoradiotherapy and explains the disease recurrence after the currently used genotoxic treatment. Identification of an inherited predisposition to PDAC due to genetic factors should allow high-risk groups to benefit from early detection programs. The presence in biofluids of stable tumor-specific microRNAs (miRs) makes them the most promising biomarkers potentially capable of detecting tumors long before their clinical manifestation. The cancer stem cell hypothesis made it realistic to anticipate a clinical impact of miR-based therapy (miR mimics and antagomirs) to overcome the otherwise insurmountable barrier of frequent resistance of PDAC to chemoradiotherapy. The investigation of miRs in PDAC may provide exciting novel strategies for both diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Ohgaki H.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Kleihues P.,University of Zürich
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant brain tumor. The vast majority of glioblastomas (∼90%) develop rapidly de novo in elderly patients, without clinical or histologic evidence of a less malignant precursor lesion (primary glioblastomas). Secondary glioblastomas progress from low-grade diffuse astrocytoma or anaplastic astrocytoma. They manifest in younger patients, have a lesser degree of necrosis, are preferentially located in the frontal lobe, and carry a significantly better prognosis. Histologically, primary and secondary glioblastomas are largely indistinguishable, but they differ in their genetic and epigenetic profiles. Decisive genetic signposts of secondary glioblastoma are IDH1 mutations, which are absent in primary glioblastomas and which are associated with a hypermethylation phenotype. IDH1 mutations are the earliest detectable genetic alteration in precursor low-grade diffuse astrocytomas and in oligodendrogliomas, indicating that these tumors are derived from neural precursor cells that differ from those of primary glioblastomas. In this review, we summarize epidemiologic, clinical, histopathologic, genetic, and expression features of primary and secondary glioblastomas and the biologic consequences of IDH1 mutations. We conclude that this genetic alteration is a definitive diagnostic molecular marker of secondary glioblastomas and more reliable and objective than clinical criteria. Despite a similar histologic appearance, primary and secondary glioblastomas are distinct tumor entities that originate from different precursor cells and may require different therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research.

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