International Agency for Research on Cancer

Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

International Agency for Research on Cancer

Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

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News Article | May 25, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Scientists have found that carrying fat around your middle could be as good an indicator of cancer risk as body mass index (BMI), according to research published in the British Journal of Cancer. It shows that adding about 11cm to the waistline increased the risk of obesity related cancers by 13 per cent. For bowel cancer, adding around 8 cm to the hips is linked to an increased risk of 15 per cent. Carrying excess body fat can change the levels of sex hormones, such as oestrogen and testosterone, can cause levels of insulin to rise, and lead to inflammation, all of which are factors that have been associated with increased cancer risk. This is the first study comparing adult body measurements in such a standardized way for obesity-related cancers. Using a novel approach, scientists at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC-WHO) showed that three different measurements of body size, BMI, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio all predicted similar obesity-related cancer risk in older adults. The study combined data from around 43,000 participants who had been followed for an average of 12 years and more than 1,600 people were diagnosed with an obesity-related cancer. Dr Heinz Freisling, lead study author and scientist at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC-WHO), said: "Our findings show that both BMI and where body fat is carried on the body can be good indicators of obesity-related cancer risk. Specifically, fat carried around the waist may be important for certain cancers, but requires further investigation." "To better reflect the underlying biology at play, we think it's important to study more than just BMI when looking at cancer risk. And our research adds further understanding to how people's body shape could increase their risk." Being overweight or obese is the single biggest preventable cause of cancer after smoking and is linked to 13 types of cancer including bowel, breast, and pancreatic. Dr Julie Sharp, Cancer Research UK's head of health information, said: "This study further highlights that however you measure it being overweight or obese can increase the risk of developing certain cancers, including breast and bowel. "It's important that people are informed about ways to reduce their risk of cancer. And while there are no guarantees against the disease, keeping a healthy weight can help you stack the odds in your favour and has lots of other benefits too. Making small changes in eating, drinking and keeping physically active that you can stick with in the long term can help you get to a healthy weight -- and stay there."


News Article | May 23, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Scientists have found that carrying fat around your middle could be as good an indicator of cancer risk as body mass index (BMI), according to research* published in the British Journal of Cancer today (Wednesday). It shows that adding about 11cm to the waistline increased the risk of obesity related cancers** by 13 per cent. For bowel cancer, adding around 8 cm to the hips is linked to an increased risk of 15 per cent. *** Carrying excess body fat can change the levels of sex hormones, such as oestrogen and testosterone, can cause levels of insulin to rise, and lead to inflammation, all of which are factors that have been associated with increased cancer risk. This is the first study comparing adult body measurements in such a standardised way for obesity-related cancers. Using a novel approach, scientists at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC-WHO) showed that three different measurements of body size, BMI****, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio all predicted similar obesity-related cancer risk in older adults. The study combined data from around 43,000 participants who had been followed for an average of 12 years and more than 1,600 people were diagnosed with an obesity-related cancer. Dr Heinz Freisling, lead study author and scientist at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC-WHO), said: "Our findings show that both BMI and where body fat is carried on the body can be good indicators of obesity-related cancer risk. Specifically, fat carried around the waist may be important for certain cancers, but requires further investigation." "To better reflect the underlying biology at play, we think it's important to study more than just BMI when looking at cancer risk. And our research adds further understanding to how people's body shape could increase their risk." Being overweight or obese is the single biggest preventable cause of cancer after smoking and is linked to 13 types of cancer including bowel, breast, and pancreatic. Dr Julie Sharp, Cancer Research UK's head of health information, said: "This study further highlights that however you measure it being overweight or obese can increase the risk of developing certain cancers, including breast and bowel. "It's important that people are informed about ways to reduce their risk of cancer. And while there are no guarantees against the disease, keeping a healthy weight can help you stack the odds in your favour and has lots of other benefits too. Making small changes in eating, drinking and keeping physically active that you can stick with in the long term can help you get to a healthy weight - and stay there." For media enquiries contact Kathryn Ingham in the British Journal of Cancer press office on 020 3469 5475 or, out of hours, on 07050 264 059. * Freisling et al. Comparison of general obesity and measures of body fat distribution in older adults in relation to cancer risk: meta-analysis of individual participant data of seven prospective cohorts in Europe. British Journal of Cancer. Paper: https:/ ** This included people diagnosed with: postmenopausal female breast, colorectal, lower oesophagus, upper stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreatic, womb, ovary, and kidney. *** The study presents obesity-related cancer risk as the change in risk per standardised unit (standard deviation) in BMI or waist circumference, which allows direct comparisons between these obesity-related cancer risk estimates. Cancer Research UK have used the population estimates of actual BMI and waist circumference presented in the paper to approximate how these changes in obesity-related cancer risk translate to actual BMI and waist circumference. **** Body mass index is calculated with the weight and height of an individual and expressed in units of kg/m2. Healthy weight: 18.5 to 24.9, overweight: 25 to 29.9, obese: over 30. The BJC is owned by Cancer Research UK. Its mission is to encourage communication of the very best cancer research from laboratories and clinics in all countries. Broad coverage, its editorial independence and consistent high standards have made BJC one of the world's premier general cancer journals. http://www.


Torre L.A.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | Bray F.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Siegel R.L.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | Ferlay J.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | And 2 more authors.
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2015

Cancer constitutes an enormous burden on society in more and less economically developed countries alike. The occurrence of cancer is increasing because of the growth and aging of the population, as well as an increasing prevalence of established risk factors such as smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, and changing reproductive patterns associated with urbanization and economic development. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, about 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths occurred in 2012 worldwide. Over the years, the burden has shifted to less developed countries, which currently account for about 57% of cases and 65% of cancer deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among males in both more and less developed countries, and has surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among females in more developed countries; breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among females in less developed countries. Other leading causes of cancer death in more developed countries include colorectal cancer among males and females and prostate cancer among males. In less developed countries, liver and stomach cancer among males and cervical cancer among females are also leading causes of cancer death. Although incidence rates for all cancers combined are nearly twice as high in more developed than in less developed countries in both males and females, mortality rates are only 8% to 15% higher in more developed countries. This disparity reflects regional differences in the mix of cancers, which is affected by risk factors and detection practices, and/or the availability of treatment. Risk factors associated with the leading causes of cancer death include tobacco use (lung, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancer), overweight/obesity and physical inactivity (breast and colorectal cancer), and infection (liver, stomach, and cervical cancer). A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly applying effective prevention measures, such as tobacco control, vaccination, and the use of early detection tests. CA Cancer J Clin 2015;65: 87-108. © 2015 American Cancer Society.


Wild C.P.,International Agency for Research on Cancer
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2012

Noncommunicable diseases were estimated to claim more than 36 million lives worldwide in 2008. Major contributors to this burden were cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes. The United Nations General Assembly held a high-level meeting on noncommunicable diseases in September 2011 for heads of states and governments, conscious of the projected increases in disease incidence, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This meeting followed the Special Session on HIV/AIDS in 2001, the only other high-level meeting to discuss a health topic and orient the global political agenda toward a growing threat to human development. Proposed strategies for control of noncommunicable diseases focused mainly on the shared risk factors of tobacco, harmful use of alcohol, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet. However, for cancer, a broader response is required. Notably, the heterogeneity of cancer with respect to its geographical distribution, etiology, and pathology all demand a more nuanced, regional, or even local approach. Preparations for the meeting elicited enormous attention from governments and nongovernmental organizations, but the engagement of the research community was less evident. This commentary calls for the involvement of the cancer research community in response to the further action detailed in the United Nations Political Declaration emanating from the meeting, identifies a number of cancer-specific priorities, including vaccination against hepatitis B virus and human papillomavirus, cervical cancer screening, and early detection of breast cancer, and suggests areas where cancer research can provide the evidence base for cancer control, notably in improving the quality and coverage of cancer registration, elucidating cancer etiology, and evaluating interventions, including their implementation in low-resource health-care settings. Finally, the need for global cooperation in developing a research agenda for low- and middleincome countries is highlighted. © The Author 2009.


Vineis P.,Imperial College London | Vineis P.,HuGeF Foundation | Wild C.P.,International Agency for Research on Cancer
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Cancer is a global and growing, but not uniform, problem. An increasing proportion of the burden is falling on low-income and middle-income countries because of not only demographic change but also a transition in risk factors, whereby the consequences of the globalisation of economies and behaviours are adding to an existing burden of cancers of infectious origin. We argue that primary prevention is a particularly effective way to fight cancer, with between a third and a half of cancers being preventable on the basis of present knowledge of risk factors. Primary prevention has several advantages: the effectiveness could have benefits for people other than those directly targeted, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is likely to prevent other non-communicable diseases, and the cause could be removed or reduced in the long term-eg, through regulatory measures against occupational or environmental exposures (ie, the preventive effort does not need to be renewed with every generation, which is especially important when resources are in short supply). Primary prevention must therefore be prioritised as an integral part of global cancer control.


Jemal A.,Surveillance Research | Bray F.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Center M.M.,Surveillance Research | Ferlay J.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | And 2 more authors.
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2011

The global burden of cancer continues to increase largely because of the aging and growth of the world population alongside an increasing adoption of cancer-causing behaviors, particularly smoking, in economically developing countries. Based on the GLOBOCAN 2008 estimates, about 12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths are estimated to have occurred in 2008; of these, 56% of the cases and 64% of the deaths occurred in the economically developing world. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females, accounting for 23% of the total cancer cases and 14% of the cancer deaths. Lung cancer is the leading cancer site in males, comprising 17% of the total new cancer cases and 23% of the total cancer deaths. Breast cancer is now also the leading cause of cancer death among females in economically developing countries, a shift from the previous decade during which the most common cause of cancer death was cervical cancer. Further, the mortality burden for lung cancer among females in developing countries is as high as the burden for cervical cancer, with each accounting for 11% of the total female cancer deaths. Although overall cancer incidence rates in the developing world are half those seen in the developed world in both sexes, the overall cancer mortality rates are generally similar. Cancer survival tends to be poorer in developing countries, most likely because of a combination of a late stage at diagnosis and limited access to timely and standard treatment. A substantial proportion of the worldwide burden of cancer could be prevented through the application of existing cancer control knowledge and by implementing programs for tobacco control, vaccination (for liver and cervical cancers), and early detection and treatment, as well as public health campaigns promoting physical activity and a healthier dietary intake. Clinicians, public health professionals, and policy makers can play an active role in accelerating the application of such interventions globally. ©2011 American Cancer Society, Inc.


Plummer M.,International Agency for Research on Cancer
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

A large cross-sectional survey suggests an association between H. pylori gastritis and colonic neoplasms, but the results should be interpreted with caution. © 2013 by the American College of Gastroenterology.


Olivier M.,International Agency for Research on Cancer
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology | Year: 2010

Somatic mutations in the TP53 gene are one of the most frequent alterations in human cancers, and germline mutations are the underlying cause of Li-Fraumeni syndrome, which predisposes to a wide spectrum of early-onset cancers. Most mutations are single-base substitutions distributed throughout the coding sequence. Their diverse types and positions may inform on the nature of mutagenic mechanisms involved in cancer etiology. TP53 mutations are also potential prognostic and predictive markers, as well as targets for pharmacological intervention. All mutations found in human cancers are compiled in the IARC TP53 Database (http://www-p53.iarc.fr/). A human TP53 knockin mouse model (Hupki mouse) provides an experimental model to study mutagenesis in the context of a human TP53 sequence. Here, we summarize current knowledge on TP53 gene variations observed in human cancers and populations, and current clinical applications derived from this knowledge.


Partensky C.,International Agency for Research on Cancer
Pancreas | Year: 2013

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) imposes a heavy burden of disease, especially in the most developed countries, and the mortality rate has not declined over the past decades. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of PDAC, which may help to improve early detection, prognosis, and treatment efficiency. This review focuses on PDAC epidemiology and on recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of PDAC carcino-genesis. We discuss the cancer stem cell hypothesis, which provides a rationale for the pervasive resistance of PDAC to chemoradiotherapy and explains the disease recurrence after the currently used genotoxic treatment. Identification of an inherited predisposition to PDAC due to genetic factors should allow high-risk groups to benefit from early detection programs. The presence in biofluids of stable tumor-specific microRNAs (miRs) makes them the most promising biomarkers potentially capable of detecting tumors long before their clinical manifestation. The cancer stem cell hypothesis made it realistic to anticipate a clinical impact of miR-based therapy (miR mimics and antagomirs) to overcome the otherwise insurmountable barrier of frequent resistance of PDAC to chemoradiotherapy. The investigation of miRs in PDAC may provide exciting novel strategies for both diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Ohgaki H.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Kleihues P.,University of Zürich
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant brain tumor. The vast majority of glioblastomas (∼90%) develop rapidly de novo in elderly patients, without clinical or histologic evidence of a less malignant precursor lesion (primary glioblastomas). Secondary glioblastomas progress from low-grade diffuse astrocytoma or anaplastic astrocytoma. They manifest in younger patients, have a lesser degree of necrosis, are preferentially located in the frontal lobe, and carry a significantly better prognosis. Histologically, primary and secondary glioblastomas are largely indistinguishable, but they differ in their genetic and epigenetic profiles. Decisive genetic signposts of secondary glioblastoma are IDH1 mutations, which are absent in primary glioblastomas and which are associated with a hypermethylation phenotype. IDH1 mutations are the earliest detectable genetic alteration in precursor low-grade diffuse astrocytomas and in oligodendrogliomas, indicating that these tumors are derived from neural precursor cells that differ from those of primary glioblastomas. In this review, we summarize epidemiologic, clinical, histopathologic, genetic, and expression features of primary and secondary glioblastomas and the biologic consequences of IDH1 mutations. We conclude that this genetic alteration is a definitive diagnostic molecular marker of secondary glioblastomas and more reliable and objective than clinical criteria. Despite a similar histologic appearance, primary and secondary glioblastomas are distinct tumor entities that originate from different precursor cells and may require different therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research.

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