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Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

Mahabir S.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Aagaard K.,Baylor College of Medicine | Anderson L.M.,NCI Inc | Herceg Z.,International Agency for Cancer Research | And 8 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2012

It is becoming increasingly evident that early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life. However, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges such as the long latency period, the distinctiveness of each cancer, and large number of subjects that must be studied, all likely to increase costs. These traditional hurdles might be mitigated by leveraging several existing large-scale prospective studies in the United States (US) and globally, as well as birth databases and birth cohorts, in order to launch both association and mechanistic studies of early-life exposures and cancer development later in life. Dedicated research funding will be needed to advance this paradigm shift in cancer research, and it seems justified by its potential to produce transformative understanding of how cancer develops over the life-course. This in turn has the potential to transform cancer prevention strategies through interventions in early-life rather than later in life, as is the current practice, where it is perhaps less effective. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Hernandez E.,University of Santa Maria in Ecuador | Barraza-Villarreal A.,University of Santa Maria in Ecuador | Escamilla-Nunez M.C.,University of Santa Maria in Ecuador | Hernandez-Cadena L.,University of Santa Maria in Ecuador | And 6 more authors.
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings | Year: 2013

Asthma and allergic diseases have increased worldwide; however, etilogic factors for this increase are still poor. Prenatal consumptions of fatty acids are hypothesized, although few clinical trials in developing countries have been performed. This study was designed to identify predictors of immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in cord blood of Mexican newborns. Total IgE was measured in umbilical cord blood from 613 infants whose mothers participated in a double-blind randomized controlled trial of 400 mg of docosahexaenoic acid or placebo from 18 to 22 weeks gestation through delivery. During pregnancy, information on sociodemographic characteristics, environmental exposures, and perceived maternal stress were obtained; a maternal blood sample was also collected to determine atopy via specific IgE levels. Logistic regression models were used to identify the main prenatal predictors of detectable total IgE levels in cord blood. IgE was detectable in cord blood from 344 (53.7%) infants; the main predictors in multivariate analyses were maternal atopy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.19 -2.42; p < 0.05) and pesticide use in the home (OR = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.04 -2.14; p < 0.05). When stratified by maternal atopy, season of birth was a significant predictor in the atopic group only (OR = 2.48; 95% CI, 1.00-6.16; p < 0.05), and pesticide use was a significant predictor for infants born to nonatopic mothers (OR = 1.64; 95% CI, 1.07-2.51; p < 0.05). No differences were seen in the proportion of infants with detectable IgE by treatment group. Prenatal supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid did not alter the detectable cord blood IgE levels. Maternal atopy and pesticide use during pregnancy are strong predictors of cord blood IgE levels in newborns. Copyright © 2013, OceanSide Publications, Inc., U.S.A.

Turati F.,University of Milan | Polesel J.,Irccs Centro Of Riferimento Oncologico | Talamini R.,Irccs Centro Of Riferimento Oncologico | Franceschi S.,International Agency for Cancer Research | La Vecchia C.,University of Milan
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2011

Soft drinks usually contain sugar and caffeine that might influence pancreatic carcinogenesis. We considered the association between carbonated drink consumption and pancreatic cancer risk in an Italian case-control study conducted in 1991-2008 on 326 pancreatic cancer cases and 652 matched controls. We also combined the results from all the studies on soft drinks or sweetened beverages and pancreatic cancer published before June 2010, using a meta-analytic approach. In the case-control study, compared with non-drinkers, the multivariate odds ratio was 1.02 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.72-1.44) for carbonated drink consumers and 0.89 (95% CI 0.53-1.50) for regular consumers (at least one drink/day). Besides our study, from the literature search, we identified 4 other case-control (1,919 cases) and 6 cohort studies (2,367 cases). The pooled relative risks (RR) for soft drink consumers vs. non-consumers were 0.97 (95% CI 0.81-1.16) for case-control, 1.05 (95% CI 0.94-1.17) for cohort, and 1.02 (95% CI 0.93-1.12) for all studies. The pooled RRs for heavy drinkers were 1.08 (95% CI 0.73-1.60) for case-control, 1.21 (95% CI 0.90-1.63) for cohort, and 1.16 (95% CI 0.93-1.45) for all studies. In conclusion, soft drink consumption is not materially related to pancreatic cancer risk. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Familiar I.,Michigan State University | Ortiz-Panozo E.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica | Hall B.,University of Macau | Vieitez I.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research | Year: 2015

Structure of the Spanish version of the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) has been inconclusive. We report the factor structure of the PHQ-9 in 55,555 women from the Mexican Teachers' Cohort (MTC). Factor structure of the PHQ-9 was assessed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in two sub-samples (n=27,778 and 27,777 respectively). A one-factor model of the PHQ-9 was the solution with the best fit to the data, exhibiting strong factor loadings (0.71 to 0.90) and high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.89). A prevalence rate of moderate to high severity of depressive symptoms of 12.6% was identified. Results suggest that a global score is an appropriate measure of depressive symptoms and commend the use of the Spanish PHQ-9 as a measure of depression for research and clinical purposes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Chavan S.,American Cancer Society | Bray F.,International Agency for Cancer Research | Lortet-Tieulent J.,American Cancer Society | Lortet-Tieulent J.,International Agency for Cancer Research | And 2 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2014

Context Previous studies have reported substantial worldwide regional variations in bladder cancer (BCa) incidence and mortality. Objective To describe contemporary international variations in BCa incidence and mortality rates and trends using the most recent data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Evidence acquisition Estimated 2008 BCa incidence and mortality rates for each country by sex were obtained from GLOBOCAN. Recent trends in incidence for 43 countries and in mortality for 64 countries were assessed by join-point model using data from the IARC's Cancer Incidence in Five Continents and from the World Health Organisation's mortality database, respectively. Evidence synthesis The highest incidence rates for both men and women are found in Europe, the United States, and Egypt, and the lowest rates are found in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and South America. Mortality rates are highest in parts of Europe and northern Africa and lowest in Asia, Central America, and middle Africa. Incidence rates among men decreased in 11 of 43 countries (46 registries) (North America, western and northern Europe), remained stable in 20, and increased in 12 countries (southern, central, and eastern Europe). Among women, incidence rates decreased in 10 countries, stabilised in 22 countries, and increased in 12 countries. Mortality rates among men decreased in 32 of 65 countries (throughout all world regions except Central and South America), stabilised in 30 countries, and increased in 3 (Romania, Slovenia, and Cuba). Among women, mortality rates decreased in 24 countries, remained stable in 36 countries, and increased in 5 countries (central and eastern Europe). Conclusions Incidence and mortality rates in general decreased in most Western countries but increased in some eastern European and developing countries. These patterns in part may reflect differences in the stage and extent of the tobacco epidemic, changes in coding practices, prevalence of schistosomiasis (Africa), and occupational exposure. © 2013 European Association of Urology.

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