McDonagh M.S.,Oregon Health And Science University |
Jonas D.E.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Jonas D.E.,Cecil eps Center For Health Services Research |
Gartlehner G.,International |
And 6 more authors.
BMC Medical Research Methodology | Year: 2012
The Drug Effectiveness Review Project was initiated in 2003 in response to dramatic increases in the cost of pharmaceuticals, which lessened the purchasing power of state Medicaid budgets. A collaborative group of state Medicaid agencies and other organizations formed to commission high-quality comparative effectiveness reviews to inform evidence-based decisions about drugs that would be available to Medicaid recipients. The Project is coordinated by the Center for Evidence-based Policy (CEbP) at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU), and the systematic reviews are undertaken by the Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs) at OHSU and at the University of North Carolina. The reviews adhere to high standards for comparative effectiveness reviews. Because the investigators have direct, regular communication with policy-makers, the reports have direct impact on policy and decision-making, unlike many systematic reviews. The Project was an innovator of methods to involve stakeholders and continues to develop its methods in conducting reviews that are highly relevant to policy-makers. The methods used for selecting topics, developing key questions, searching, determining eligibility of studies, assessing study quality, conducting qualitative and quantitative syntheses, rating the strength of evidence, and summarizing findings are described. In addition, our on-going interactions with the policy-makers that use the reports are described. © 2012 McDonagh et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Brizay U.,International |
Golob L.,International |
Bird M.,California State University, Long Beach |
Rios-Ellis B.,California State University, Long Beach |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2015
Introduction: Community involvement in HIV research has increased over recent years, enhancing community-academic partnerships. Several terms have been used to describe community participation in research. Clarification is needed to determine whether these terms are synonymous or actually describe different research processes. In addition, it remains unclear if the role that communities play in the actual research process follows the recommendations given in theoretical frameworks of community-academia research. Objectives: The objective of this study is to review the existing terms and definitions regarding community-academic partnerships and assess how studies are implementing these in relation to conceptual definitions. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed. Two reviewers independently assessed each article, applying the following inclusion criteria: the article must be published in English before 2013; it must provide an explicit definition and/or defining methodology for a term describing research with a community component; and it has to refer to HIV or AIDS, reproductive health and/or STDs. When disagreements about the relevance of an article emerged, a third reviewer was involved until concordance was reached. Data were extracted by one reviewer and independently verified by a second. Qualitative data were analyzed using MaxQDA for content and thematic analyses while quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Community feedback on data analysis and presentation of results was also incorporated. Results: In total, 246 articles were retrieved, 159 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The number of studies that included community participation in the field of HIV research increased between 1991 and 2012, and the terms used to describe these activities have changed, moving away from action research (AR) to participatory action research (PAR), community-based research (CBR) and community-based participatory research (CBPR), with the latter being the most commonly used term. While definitions of all terms had common characteristics (e.g. participation of community in research process), they varied with regard to the emphasis placed on these characteristics. The nature of community participation in reviewed studies differed considerably from that described in theoretical models. Conclusions: This study indicates the increase of participatory approaches in HIV research and underlines the need for clarification of terms and a framework providing orientation to community-academia partnerships. © 2015 Brizay U et al; licensee International AIDS Society.
Bulman G.,International |
Barletta P.,International |
Lewis J.,International |
Baldasaro N.,International |
And 3 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2016
In present-day high-performance electronic components, the generated heat loads result in unacceptably high junction temperatures and reduced component lifetimes. Thermoelectric modules can, in principle, enhance heat removal and reduce the temperatures of such electronic devices. However, state-of-the-art bulk thermoelectric modules have a maximum cooling flux qmax of only about 10 W cm-2, while state-of-the art commercial thin-film modules have a qmax <100 W cm-2. Such flux values are insufficient for thermal management of modern high-power devices. Here we show that cooling fluxes of 258 W cm-2 can be achieved in thin-film Bi2 Te3-based superlattice thermoelectric modules. These devices utilize a p-type Sb2 Te3/Bi2 Te3 superlattice and n-type δ-doped Bi2 Te3-x Sex, both of which are grown heteroepitaxially using metalorganic chemical vapour deposition. We anticipate that the demonstration of these high-cooling-flux modules will have far-reaching impacts in diverse applications, such as advanced computer processors, radio-frequency power devices, quantum cascade lasers and DNA micro-arrays.
Ghorbaniasl G.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel |
Hirsch C.,International |
Siozos-Rousoulis L.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel |
Lacor C.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel
International Journal of Aeroacoustics | Year: 2015
This paper deals with the derivation of an analytical time-domain formulation for the prediction of the acoustic velocity field generated by moving bodies in a medium at rest, according to the Kirchhoff method. The present formulation can be implemented in acoustic pressure codes based on the Farassat's Kirchhoff formula for arbitrary moving bodies, thus allowing direct and fast calculation of the acoustic velocity field in scattering problems. For validation purposes, four test cases are considered, namely a three-dimensional monopole, dipole and quadrupole source, as well as a monopole in uniform flow. Comparison of the results with the analytical solutions proves the remarkable accuracy of the present formulation.
Soltiz M.,Rochester Institute of Technology |
Kudithipudi D.,Rochester Institute of Technology |
Merkel C.,Rochester Institute of Technology |
Rose G.S.,Air Force Research Lab |
IEEE Transactions on Computers | Year: 2013
Neural logic blocks (NLBs) enable the realization of biologically inspired reconfigurable hardware. Networks of NLBs can be trained to perform complex computations such as multilevel Boolean logic and optical character recognition (OCR) in an area- and energy-efficient manner. Recently, several groups have proposed perceptron-based NLB designs with thin-film memristor synapses. These designs are implemented using a static threshold activation function, limiting the set of learnable functions to be linearly separable. In this work, we propose two NLB designs-robust adaptive NLB (RANLB) and multithreshold NLB (MTNLB) which overcome this limitation by allowing the effective activation function to be adapted during the training process. Consequently, both designs enable any logic function to be implemented in a single-layer NLB network. The proposed NLBs are designed, simulated, and trained to implement ISCAS-85 benchmark circuits, as well as OCR. The MTNLB achieves 90 percent improvement in the energy delay product (EDP) over lookup table (LUT)-based implementations of the ISCAS-85 benchmarks and up to a 99 percent improvement over a previous NLB implementation. As a compromise, the RANLB provides a smaller EDP improvement, but has an average training time of only 4 cycles for 4-input logic functions, compared to the MTNLBs 8-cycle average training time. © 1968-2012 IEEE.
WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2010
By 2050 the world's population will increase by an estimated 50%. Most of the increased food demands will have to come from productivity improvements in existing irrigated agricultural areas. These improvements will need to be achieved with less water and less farm land because of the competition from urbanization, industrialization, the need to provide water for environmental purposes and to respond to climate change impacts. Therefore, the challenge facing us is to make existing irrigation systems more efficient and productive to better utilize the shrinking agricultural land and water resources. In south-eastern Australia, severe water shortages brought about by a prolonged 11 year drought sequence has spurred a lot of innovative thinking about how to use the limited available water more efficiently in irrigation and, at the same time, improving the performance of irrigation systems. A higher level of technological investment in the modernization of large unlined, gravity fed irrigation systems in the south-eastern state of Victoria has resulted in increases in efficiency from about 70% up to about 90% - a remarkable outcome. In Victoria, the water saved is being reallocated equally between urban and industrial users, the environment and to existing farmers to improve their security of supply. The investment required is a mix of both hardware and software involving remotely controlled gates, accurate water measuring devices, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and system management software. This investment, combined with modelling and control technologies, has resulted in the delivery of significantly improved services to irrigators in terms of equity, reliability and flexibility, and huge improvements in the management capability and performance of existing large-scale irrigation systems. © 2010 WIT Press.
International | Date: 2016-02-03
Eyewear, namely, sunglasses, eyeglasses and ophthalmic frames and cases therefor.