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Delgado T.C.,Intermediary Metabolism Group | Delgado T.C.,New University of Lisbon | Martins F.O.,Intermediary Metabolism Group | Martins F.O.,New University of Lisbon | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Dietary fructose can benefit or hinder glycemic control, depending on the quantity consumed, and these contrasting effects are reflected by alterations in postprandial hepatic glycogen synthesis. Recently, we showed that 2H enrichment of glycogen positions 5 and 2 from deuterated water (2H2O) informs direct and indirect pathway contributions to glycogenesis in naturally feeding rats. Inclusion of position 6S 2H enrichment data allows indirect pathway sources to be further resolved into triose phosphate and Krebs cycle precursors. This analysis was applied to six rats that had fed on standard chow (SC) and six rats that had fed on SC plus 35% sucrose in their drinking water (HS). After 2 wk, hepatic glycogenesis sources during overnight feeding were determined by 2H2O administration and postmortem analysis of glycogen 2H enrichment at the conclusion of the dark period. Net overnight hepatic glycogenesis was similar between SC and HS rodents. Whereas direct pathway contributions were similar (403 ± 71 μmol/g dry wt HS vs. 578 ± 76 μmol/g dry wt SC), triose phosphate contributions were significantly higher for HS compared with SC (382 ± 61 vs. 87 ± 24 μmol/g dry wt, P < 0.01) and Krebs cycle inputs lower for HS compared with SC (110 ± 9 vs. 197 ± 32 μmol/g dry wt, P < 0.05). Analysis of plasma glucose 2H enrichments at the end of the feeding period also revealed a significantly higher fractional contribution of triose phosphate to plasma glucose levels in HS vs. SC. Hence, the 2H enrichment distributions of hepatic glycogen and glucose from 2H2O inform the contribution of dietary fructose to hepatic glycogen and glucose synthesis. © 2013 the American Physiological Society.

Delgado T.C.,Intermediary Metabolism Group
Frontiers in Endocrinology | Year: 2013

Appetite is regulated by a coordinated interplay between gut, adipose tissue, and brain. A primary site for the regulation of appetite is the hypothalamus where interaction between orexigenic neurons, expressing Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related protein, and anorexigenic neurons, expressing Pro-opiomelanocortin cocaine/Amphetamine-related transcript, controls energy homeostasis. Within the hypothalamus, several peripheral signals have been shown to modulate the activity of these neurons, including the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and the anorexigenic hormones insulin and leptin. In addition to the accumulated knowledge on neuropeptide signaling, presence and function of amino acid neurotransmitters in key hypothalamic neurons brought a new light into appetite regulation. Therefore, the principal aim of this review will be to describe the current knowledge of the role of amino acid neurotransmitters in the mechanism of neuronal activation during appetite regulation and the associated neuronal-astrocytic metabolic coupling mechanisms. Glutamate and GABA dominate synaptic transmission in the hypothalamus and administration of their receptors agonists into hypothalamic nuclei stimulates feeding. By using 13C High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy based analysis, the Cerdán group has shown that increased neuronal firing in mice hypothalamus, as triggered by appetite during the feeding-fasting paradigm, may stimulate the use of lactate as neuronal fuel leading to increased astrocytic glucose consumption and glycolysis. Moreover, fasted mice showed increased hypothalamic [2-13C]GABA content, which may be explained by the existence of GABAergic neurons in key appetite regulation hypothalamic nuclei. Interestingly, increased [2-13C]GABA concentration in the hypothalamus of fasted animals appears to result mainly from reduction in GABA metabolizing pathways, rather than increased GABA synthesis by augmented activity of the glutamate-glutamine-GABA cycle. © 2013 Delgado.

PubMed | Intermediary Metabolism Group
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2012

Sources of plasma glucose excursions (PGE) following a glucose tolerance test enriched with [U-(13)C]glucose and deuterated water were directly resolved by (13)C and (2)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy analysis of plasma glucose and water enrichments in rat. Plasma water (2)H-enrichment attained isotopic steady-state within 2-4 minutes following the load. The fraction of PGE derived from endogenous sources was determined from the ratio of plasma glucose position 2 and plasma water (2)H-enrichments. The fractional gluconeogenic contributions to PGE were obtained from plasma glucose positions 2 and 5 (2)H-positional enrichment ratios and load contributions were estimated from plasma [U-(13)C]glucose enrichments. At 15 minutes, the load contributed 265% of PGE while 142% originated from gluconeogenesis in healthy control rats. Between 15 and 120 minutes, the load contribution fell whereas the gluconeogenic contribution remained constant. High-fat fed animals had significant higher 120-minute blood glucose (1736 mg/dL vs. 13910 mg/dL, p<0.05) and gluconeogenic contributions to PGE (595 mg/dL vs. 383 mg/dL, p<0.01) relative to standard chow-fed controls. In summary, the endogenous and load components of PGE can be resolved during a glucose tolerance test and these measurements revealed that plasma glucose synthesis via gluconeogenesis remained active during the period immediately following a glucose load. In rats that were placed on high-fat diet, the development of glucose intolerance was associated with a significantly higher gluconeogenic contribution to plasma glucose levels after the load.

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