Riccardo F.,National Institute Of Health Istituto Superiore Of Sanita |
Riccardo F.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention |
Dente M.G.,National Institute Of Health Istituto Superiore Of Sanita |
Karki T.,National Institute Of Health Istituto Superiore Of Sanita |
And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2015
There are limitations in our capacity to interpret point estimates and trends of infectious diseases occurring among diverse migrant populations living in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA). The aim of this study was to design a data collection framework that could capture information on factors associated with increased risk to infectious diseases in migrant populations in the EU/EEA. The authors defined factors associated with increased risk according to a multi-dimensional framework and performed a systematic literature review in order to identify whether those factors well reflected the reported risk factors for infectious disease in these populations. Following this, the feasibility of applying this framework to relevant available EU/EEA data sources was assessed. The proposed multidimensional framework is well suited to capture the complexity and concurrence of these risk factors and in principle applicable in the EU/EEA. The authors conclude that adopting a multi-dimensional framework to monitor infectious diseases could favor the disaggregated collection and analysis of migrant health data. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source
Serraino D.,Italian National Cancer Institute |
Gini A.,Italian National Cancer Institute |
Taborelli M.,Italian National Cancer Institute |
Ronco G.,Center for Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention |
And 49 more authors.
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2015
Objective: To quantify the impact of organized cervical screening programs (OCSPs) on the incidence of invasive cervical cancer (ICC), comparing rates before and after activation of OCSPs. Methods: This population-based investigation, using individual data from cancer registries and OCSPs, included 3557 women diagnosed with ICC at age 25-74. years in 1995-2008. The year of full-activation of each OCSP was defined as the year when at least 40% of target women had been invited. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated as the ratios between age-standardized incidence rates observed in periods after full-activation of OCSPs vs those observed in the preceding quinquennium. Results: ICC incidence rates diminished with time since OCSPs full-activation: after 6-8. years, the IRR was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.67-0.85). The reduction was higher for stages IB-IV (IRR. =. 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58-0.80), squamous cell ICCs (IRR. =. 0.74, 95% CI: 0.64-0.84), and particularly evident among women aged 45-74. years. Conversely, incidence rates of micro-invasive (stage IA) ICCs increased, though not significantly, among women aged 25-44. years (IRR. =. 1.34, 95% CI: 0.91-1.96). Following full-activation of OCSPs, micro-invasive ICCs were mainly and increasingly diagnosed within OCSPs (up to 72%). Conclusion(s): Within few years from activation, organized screening positively impacted the already low ICC incidence in Italy and favored down-staging. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source
Rossi P.G.,Interinstitutional Epidemiology Unit |
Barca A.,Agency for Public Health |
Pantano P.,Agency for Public Health |
Camilloni L.,Agency for Public Health |
And 4 more authors.
Epidemiology Biostatistics and Public Health | Year: 2014
Background: Breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening are evidence-based interventions recommended by most governmental agencies and scientific societies. The aim of this review is to assess the quality of guidelines on screening and to describe differences according to the context in which they were produced.Methods: A literature search of the main databases, websites on health care, and guidelines, as well as the websites of several scientific societies was carried out in order to identify the most recent guidelines (since 2000) on cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening. Only documents written in Italian or English were included. Two investigators independently assessed quality by using the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation in Europe) instrument.Results: Thirty-three, 32, and 18 relevant documents for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer, respectively, were identified. Only some documents (19, 12 and 13 for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer, respectively) could be evaluated with AGREE. Items included in the domain “scope and purpose” obtained the highest scores, followed by “clarity of presentation” domain, while “applicability”, “patient involvement,” and “conflict of interest disclosure” domains obtained the lowest scores. The quality did not improve in more recent documents. Documents produced by governmental agencies, on average, had higher scores than documents by scientific societies, particularly for “stakeholder involvement” and “applicability”.Conclusions: Documents from different countries and health systems differ in terms of the main recommendations given and in the quality of the documents. Those produced by governmental agencies have a more multidisciplinary authorship and pay more attention to applicability than do those produced by scientific societies. © 2014 Prex S.p.A. All right reserved. Source
Bergeron C.,Laboratoire Cerba |
Bergeron C.,Interinstitutional Epidemiology Unit |
Cas F.,Laboratoire Cerba |
Cas F.,Interinstitutional Epidemiology Unit |
And 10 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2015
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening needs triage. In most randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on HPV testing with cytological triage, cytology interpretation has been blind to HPV status. Methods: Women age 25 to 60 years enrolled in the New Technology in Cervical Cancer (NTCC) RCT comparing HPV testing with cytology were referred to colposcopy if HPV positive and, if no cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was detected, followed up until HPV negativity. Cytological slides taken at the first colposcopy were retrieved and independently interpreted by an external laboratory, which was only aware of patients' HPV positivity. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were computed for histologically proven CIN2+ with HPV status-informed cytology for women with a determination of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or more severe. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Among HPV-positive women, informed cytology had cross-sectional sensitivity, specificity, PPV and 1-NPV for CIN2+ of 85.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 76.6 to 92.1), 65.9% (95% CI = 63.1 to 68.6), 16.2% (95% CI = 13.0 to 19.8), and 1.7 (95% CI = 0.9 to 2.8), respectively. Cytology was also associated with subsequent risk of newly diagnosed CIN2+ and CIN3+. The cross-sectional relative sensitivity for CIN2+ vs blind cytology obtained by referring to colposcopy and following up only HPV positive women who had HPV status-informed cytology greater than or equal to ASCUS was 1.58 (95% CI = 1.22 to 2.01), while the corresponding relative referral to colposcopy was 0.95 (95% CI = 0.86 to 1.04). Conclusions: Cytology informed of HPV positivity is more sensitive than blind cytology and could allow longer intervals before retesting HPV-positive, cytology-negative women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. Source
Rossi P.G.,Interinstitutional Epidemiology Unit |
Caroli S.,Interinstitutional Epidemiology Unit |
Mancini S.,The Care Registry |
De Bianchi P.S.,Public Health Unit |
And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2015
Most invasive cervical cancers in industrialized countries are due to the lack of Pap test coverage, very few are due to screening failures. This study aimed at quantifying the proportion of invasive cancers occurring in nonscreened or underscreened women and that in women with a previous negative screening, that is, screening failure, during the first two screening rounds (1996-2002) and in the following rounds (2003-2008) in the Emilia-Romagna region. All cases of invasive cancers registered in the regional cancer registry between 1996 and 2008 were classified according to screening history through a record linkage with the screening programme registry. The incidence significantly decreased from 11.6/100 000 to 8.7/100 000; this decrease is due to a reduction in squamous cell cancers (annual percentage change -6.2; confidence interval: - 7.8, -4.6) and advanced cancers (annual percentage change -6.6; confidence interval: - 8.8, -4.3), whereas adenocarcinomas and microinvasive cancers were essentially stable. The proportion of cancers among women not yet invited and among nonresponders decreased over the two periods, from 45.5 to 33.3%. In contrast, the proportion of women with a previous negative Pap test less than 5 years and 5 years or more before cancer incidence increased from 5.7 to 13.3% and from 0.3 to 5.5%, respectively. Although nonattendance of the screening programme remains the main barrier to cervical cancer control, the introduction of a more sensitive test, such as the human papillomavirus DNA test, could significantly reduce the burden of disease. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source