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Benicia, CA, United States

Gupta R.C.,Murray State University | Canerdy T.D.,Murray State University | Lindley J.,Murray State University | Konemann M.,Murray State University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2012

Summary: The investigation was conducted on client-owned moderately arthritic dogs with two objectives: (i) to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of type-II collagen (UC-II) alone or in combination with glucosamine hydrochloride (GLU) and chondroitin sulphate (CHO), and (ii) to determine their tolerability and safety. Dogs in four groups (n=7-10), were treated daily for a period of 150days with placebo (Group-I), 10mg active UC-II (Group-II), 2000mg GLU+1600mg CHO (Group-III), and UC-II+GLU+CHO (Group-IV). On a monthly basis, dogs were evaluated for observational pain (overall pain, pain upon limb manipulation, and pain after physical exertion) using different numeric scales. Pain level was also measured objectively using piezoelectric sensor-based GFP for peak vertical force and impulse area. Dogs were also examined every month for physical, hepatic (ALP, ALT and bilirubin) and renal (BUN and creatinine) functions. Based on observations, significant (p<0.05) reduction in pain was noted in Group-II, III, and IV dogs. Using GFP, significant increases in peak vertical force (N/kg body wt) and impulse area (Ns/kg body wt), indicative of a decrease in arthritis associated pain, were observed in Group-II dogs only. None of the dogs in any group showed changes in physical, hepatic or renal functions. In conclusion, based on GFP data, moderately arthritic dogs treated with UC-II (10mg) showed a marked reduction in arthritic pain with maximum improvement by day 150. UC-II, GLU and CHO operate through different mechanisms of action, and were well tolerated over a period of 150days. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Marone P.A.,Eurofins | Lau F.C.,InterHealth Research Center | Gupta R.C.,Murray State University | Bagchi M.,InterHealth Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods | Year: 2010

Previous research has shown that undenatured type II collagen is effective in the treatment of arthritis. The present study evaluated the broad-spectrum safety of UC-II by a variety of toxicological assays including acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation, and primary eye irritation toxicity. In addition, genotoxicity studies such as Ames bacterial reverse mutation assay and mouse lymphoma tests, as well as a dose-dependent 90-day sub-chronic toxicity study were conducted. Safety studies indicated that acute oral LD50 of UC-II was greater than 5000 mg/kg in female Sprague-Dawley rats. No changes in body weight or adverse effects were observed following necropsy. Acute dermal LD50 of UC-II was determined to be greater than 2000 mg/kg. Primary skin irritation tests conducted on New Zealand Albino rabbits classified UC-II as slightly irritating. Primary eye irritation tests conducted on rabbits indicated that UC-II was moderately irritating to the eye. UC-II did not induce mutagenicity in the bacterial reverse mutation test in five Salmonella typhimurium strains either with or without metabolic activation. Similarly, UC-II did not induce a mutagenic effect in the gene mutation test in mouse lymphoma cells either with or without metabolic activation. A dose-dependent 90-day sub-chronic toxicity study revealed no pathologically significant changes in selected organ weights individually or as percentages of body or brain weights. No significant changes were observed in hematology and clinical chemistry. Therefore, the results from the current study show a broadspectrum safety profile of UC-II. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.


Stohs S.J.,Creighton University | Lau F.C.,InterHealth Research Center | Kim D.,11chnology Center | Kim S.U.,11chnology Center | And 3 more authors.
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods | Year: 2010

The safety of Garcinia cambogiaextract, its active ingredient (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), and the marketed weight management formula, Super CitriMax® (HCA-SX), is supported by numerous in vitro and animal experimental studies as well as several clinical studies. HCA-SX has been shown to reduce appetite, inhibit fat synthesis, and decrease body weight. A series of toxicological tests including acute, short-term, and sub-chronic studies as well as teratogenicity/reproduction and genotoxicity studies were performed on HCA-SX. In the acute oral toxicity study, administration of a single dose of 5,000mg/kg of HCA-SX did not reveal any significant changes for all examined tissues. Following the high dose safety testing, there were no remarkable changes or differences observed in any of the experimental conditions monitored. There were no macroscopic abnormalities for any examined tissues at scheduled necropsies. On the basis of these findings, the consumption of HCA-SX at dose level of up to 4667mg/day is considered safe. © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Sreejayan N.,University of Wyoming | Marone P.A.,Eurofins | Lau F.C.,InterHealth Research Center | Yasmin T.,Creighton University | And 3 more authors.
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods | Year: 2010

Chromium(III) is an essential trace element required for normal protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism. It also helps in energy production and increasing lean body mass. Chromium(III) dinicocysteinate (CDNC) is a unique form of bioavailable chromium(III). This study was focused on determining the broad spectrum safety of CDNC. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal and eye irritation studies, Ames' bacterial reverse mutation assay, mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test, and a 90-day dose-dependent oral toxicity study were conducted. Acute oral and dermal LD50 of CDNC was found to be greater than 2000mg/kg in Sprague-Dawley rats. A primary skin irritation study in New Zealand Albino rabbits demonstrated CDNC as slightly irritating. An eye irritation study exhibited that CDNC is moderately irritating. Ames' bacterial reverse mutation assay and mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test demonstrated CDNC as non-mutagenic. A dose-dependent 90-day oral toxicity study demonstrated no significant toxicity of CDNC. Body weight, food and water consumption, selected organ weights (expressed as percentages of body or brain weights), ocular health, hematology, blood chemistry, and histopathology showed no abnormal changes. Clinical and histopathological evaluation of CDNC identified a dose level of 5.7mg/kg/day as the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). Overall, these results demonstrate the broad spectrum safety of CDNC. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

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