Moon K.-H.,Interfaith medical Center
International Journal of Biomedical Science | Year: 2012
Introduction: Radiographic pathology of severe osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK) such as severe osteophyte at tibial spine (TS), compartment narrowing, marginal osteophyte, and subchondral sclerosis is well known. Kellgren-Lawrence grading system, which is widely used to diagnose OAK, describes narrowingmarginal osteophyte in 4-grades but uses osteophyte at TS only as evidence of OAK without detailed-grading. However, kinematically the knee employs medial TS as an axis while medial and lateral compartments carry the load, suggesting that early OAK would occur sooner at TS than at compartment. Then, Kellgren- Lawrence system may be inadequate to diagnose early-stage OAK manifested as a subtle osteophyte at TS without narrowing-marginal osteophyte. This undiagnosed-OAK will deteriorate becoming a contributing factor in an increasing incidence of OAK. Methods: This study developed a radiographic OAK-marker based on both osteophyte at TS and compartment narrowing-marginal osteophyte and graded as normal, mild, moderate, and severe. With this marker, both knee radiographs of 1,728 patients with knee pain were analyzed. Results: Among 611 early-stage mild OAK, 562 or 92% started at TS and 49 or 8% at compartment. It suggests the initial development site of OAK, helping develop new site-specific radiographic classification system of OAK accurately to diagnose all severity of OAK at early, intermediate, or late-stage. It showed that Kellgren-Lawrence system missed 92.0% of early-stage mild OAK from diagnosis. Conclusions: A subtle osteophyte at TS is the earliest radiographic sign of OAK. A new radiographic classification system of OAK was suggested for accurate diagnosis of all OAK in severity and at stage. © 2012 Ki-Ho Moon.
Khanal N.,Creighton University |
Upadhyay S.,Creighton University |
Dahal S.,Interfaith medical Center |
Bhatt V.R.,University of Nebraska Medical Center |
Silberstein P.T.,Creighton University
Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology | Year: 2015
Background: Pancreatic cancer accounts for approximately 7% of all cancer deaths. More than half of all pancreatic cancers are stage IV at diagnosis, where systemic chemotherapy is used with the goal of life prolongation as well as palliation. The patient characteristics and health system factors that drive the use of systemic therapy are unknown. Method: This is a retrospective study of stage IV pancreatic cancer patients (n = 140,210) diagnosed between 2000 and 2011 in the NCDB. NCDB contains approximately 70% of new cancer diagnosis from more than 1500 accredited cancer programs in the United States and Puerto Rico. Chi-squared test was used to determine any differences in characteristics of patients who did or did not receive systemic therapy. Results: Our study demonstrated that only 49.1% of stage IV pancreatic cancer patients received systemic therapy. The use of systemic therapy is significantly lower in female, African American/Hispanic, patients older than 40 years, those without insurance or with Medicare and Medicaid, higher Charlson Comorbidity Score, poor economic and educational status and in nonacademic centers. Conclusions: This is the largest study to evaluate the determinants of systemic therapy use in stage IV pancreatic cancer. The use of systemic therapy was significantly lower in patients older than 40 years, lower educational status, nonprivate insurance and with higher Charlson Comorbidity Scores. In addition, the use of systemic therapy was lower with female sex, African Americans/Hispanic, and lower socio-economic status. Understanding the barriers in the use of systemic therapy as well as appropriate utilization of systemic therapy can both optimize cancer care. © The Author(s), 2015.
Kunwar S.,University of New England at Biddeford |
Devkota A.R.,Brown University |
Ghimire D.K.C.,Interfaith medical Center
Rheumatology International | Year: 2016
Fostamatinib is a selective inhibitor of spleen tyrosine kinase which has a role in the pathogenesis of RA. Multiple RCTs have been performed to study the effects of fostamatinib. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to analyze the efficacy and safety of fostamatinib in the management of RA. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL through 11/9/15. Random effect model was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval. We measured outcomes with efficacy analysis using ACR20/50/70 response criteria and safety with adverse events. Five studies were included in the meta-analysis with total of 2105 patients including 1419 in fostamatinib group and 686 in placebo. Fostamatinib was effective in achieving ACR20, ACR50 and ACR70 responses compared to placebo (48 vs. 32.8 %, OR 1.86, 95 % CI 1.32–2.62, P = 0.0004, I2 63 %; 26.4 vs. 12.5 %, OR 2.50, 95 % CI 1.93–3.23, P < 0.00001, I2 0 % and 12.7 vs. 4.4 %, OR 3.00, 95 % CI 1.99–4.51, P < 0.00001, I2 0 %, respectively). Response to fostamatinib was rapid and significant effect on ACR20 response was seen by week 1 (OR 3.70, 95 % CI 2.33–5.87, P < 0.00001, I2 42 %). Safety analysis showed an increased risk of infection (OR 1.59, 95 % CI 1.2–2.11; P = 0.001; I2 0 %), diarrhea (OR 3.54; 95 % CI 2.43–5.16; P < 0.00001; I2 2 %), hypertension (OR 2.55, 95 % CI 1.54–4.22, P = 0.0003; I2 42 %) and neutropenia (OR 5.68, 95 % CI 1.97–16.42, P = 0.001, I2 35 %) and showed a trend toward the increase in ALT ≥3 times ULN (OR 1.76, 95 % CI 0.99–3.13; P = 0.05; I2 0 %). This meta-analysis concludes that fostamatinib has moderate effect in the treatment of RA with mostly mild-to-moderate adverse events and dose-dependent, transient neutropenia and hypertransaminasemia. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Violaris K.,Morgan Stanley |
Carbone T.,Valley Hospital |
Bateman D.,Morgan Stanley |
Olawepo O.,Peninsula Hospital Center |
And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Perinatology | Year: 2010
We compared the efficacy and safety of fluconazole and nystatin oral suspensions for the prevention of systemic fungal infection (SFI) in very low birthweight infants. A prospective, randomized clinical trial was conducted over a 15-month period, from May 1997 through September 1998, in 80 preterm infants with birthweights <1500 g. The infants were randomly assigned to receive oral fluconazole or nystatin, beginning within the first week of life. Prophylaxis was continued until full oral feedings were attained. Blood and urine cultures were obtained at enrollment and then weekly thereafter. Thirty-eight infants were randomly assigned to receive oral fluconazole (group I), and 42 infants were assigned to receive nystatin (group II). Birthweight, gestational age, and risk factors for fungal colonization and SFI at the time of randomization and during the hospital course were similar in both groups. SFI developed in two infants (5.3%) in group I and six infants (14.3%) in group II. The difference between these two rates was not statistically significant (relative risk, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.08 to 1.72). There were no deaths in group I and six deaths in group II (p=0.03). Two infants died of neonatal sepsis, and four deaths were related to necrotizing enterocolitis and/or spontaneous intestinal perforation. No deaths were due to SFI. Enrollment was halted before completion and the study did not attain adequate power to detect a hypothesized drop in SFI rate from 15 to 5%. Although the results cannot justify any conclusion about the relative efficacy of fluconazole versus nystatin in prevention of SFI, the significantly higher mortality rate in the nystatin group raises questions about the relative safety of this medication.
Odigie-Okon E.,Yale University |
Odigie-Okon E.,Interfaith medical Center |
Zarich S.,Bridgeport Hospital |
Okon E.,Interfaith medical Center |
Dufresne A.,Interfaith medical Center
Journal of Clinical Hypertension | Year: 2010
African Americans bear a greater burden of hypertension. Understanding prevailing epidemiologic patterns can facilitate the implementation and successful outcome of community programs. The authors assessed practice patterns of antihypertensive drug utilization and blood pressure (BP) control in a predominantly African American population in Brooklyn, NY, from January 1 to January 31, 2008. A total of 416 (53.1%) had hypertension, with a mean age of 61 years, and 267 (64%) were women. In general, 212 (50.9%) were at goal BP and 59.9% of those at goal were taking at least 2 drugs. Patient age correlated with the number of drugs used (r=0.14; P=.004). Patients taking β-blockers and calcium channel blockers were older: 63.6 vs 60.1 years (P=.01) and 62.7 vs 60.3 years (P=.07), respectively. The pattern of antihypertensive use was as follows: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, 194 (46.6%); calcium channel blockers, 162 (38.9%); diuretics, 162 (38.9%); β-blockers, 133(32%); and angiotensin receptor blockers, 93 (22.4%). The findings of age associated with the class of medications used and a predominance of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors usage highlight possible gaps in appropriateness of antihypertensive therapy. The application of age-appropriate race-based antihypertensive therapy might improve BP control rates. These results strengthen arguments for investing in community-based programs to overcome possible provider-related and local health system barriers to achieving BP control goals. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.