Interdisciplinary Research Unit

Kanniyākumāri, India

Interdisciplinary Research Unit

Kanniyākumāri, India
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Jones S.N.,Drexel University | Waite R.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit | Thomas Clements P.,Drexel University
Journal of Forensic Nursing | Year: 2012

School violence has evolved into an identifiably pervasive public health problem. Adverse consequences of school violence vary from bullying to death. In 2007, 457,700 youth (ages 12-18) were victims of serious crimes with 34% occurring on school grounds or on the way to school. A concept analysis of school violence can expand and enhance awareness of the pervasive phenomenon of school violence. Rodgers and Knafl (1993) evolutionary concept analysis method was used to provide a guiding framework for examination of school violence. Related manuscripts from the extant interdisciplinary school violence literature were obtained from relevant health science databases, the Education Resources Information Center, and various governmental and specialty websites within the contemporary time frame of 2000-2010. Analysis revealed the enormous scope and complexity of the problem of school violence including bullying, physical fighting, weapon carrying, alcohol/substance use and street gang presence on school property, school-associated violent death, safe schools legislation, and violence prevention strategies. Forensic nurses across practice settings are uniquely positioned to intervene to improve health of these youth through identification, assessment, treatment, and referral. © 2012 International Association of Forensic Nurses.


Joseph B.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit | Jini D.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences | Year: 2010

Salinity is one of the most severe environmental factors that may impair crop productivity. Increased salinization of arable land is expected to have devastating global effects, resulting in 30% land loss within the next 25 years and up to 50% by the year 2050. Therefore, breeding for salinity stress tolerance in crop plants (for food supply) and in forest trees (a central component of the global ecosystem) should be given high research priority in plant biotechnology programs. Molecular control mechanisms for abiotic stress tolerance are based on the activation and regulation of specific stress related genes. Abiotic stresses usually cause protein dysfunction. Maintaining proteins in their functional conformations and preventing the aggregation of non-native proteins are particularly important for cell survival under stress. Cells subjected to salt stress showed a protective response which enabled them to survive. In the last few years, considerable progress has been made in the analysis of the transcriptome to study salt stress either alone or in combination with other abiotic stresses. However, there is no review that highlights the studies conducted to-date on proteomic analysis of salinity stress-responsive proteins in plants. The present review summarizes the effect of salinity in plants and the current initiatives in proteomic research for the analysis of plant salt tolerance. The importance of this review is to improve the salt tolerability of plants by understanding the alterations of proteins in plants. © 2010 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Joseph B.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit | Jini D.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit
Research Journal of Medicinal Plant | Year: 2011

Diabetes mellitus is considered as one of the five leading causes of death in the world. Herbal treatment for diabetes has been a part of traditional medicine for thousands of years. The natural herbs for diabetes treatment focus on lowering blood sugar and reducing the damaging effects of the disease. Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world's population. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. The natural herbs for diabetes treatment focus on lowering blood sugar and reducing the damaging effects of the disease. Herbal supplements for diabetes should be a part of a holistic approach to treatment that addresses proper nutrition, a good exercise program, and continued monitoring of blood glucose levels. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. This review focuses on Indian Herbal plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.


Joseph B.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit | Jini D.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit | Ajisha S.U.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit
Research Journal of Phytochemistry | Year: 2012

Siddha and Ayurveda are the two major Traditional Indian systems of Medicine. Siddha is widely practiced in the Tamil speaking areas of South India. The frequently prescribed Siddha medicine (Arthoguard) of herbal origin that developed against arthritis was selected and subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. The extract of the drug was obtained by using ethanol in a maximum yield of phenol. Spectrophotometric analysis indicated that phenols (2.033±0.05 mg mL -1) are the prevalent compounds present in this herbal drug formulation. This result was confirmed with thin layer chromatography. To identify the exact type of phenolic constituents, mass spectrometry was carried out and the compounds were identified as dodecenylacetate, hexadecanoic acid, farnesol and geranylacetate, of which geranylacetate was the principal constituent. This is the first such attempt to provide scientific documentation of this herbal drug. Further studies on the mode of action of these drugs, their immunomodulatory effect, studies related to the understanding the molecular basis of these mechanisms will lead us a long way to position herbal drugs in global market. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.


Joseph B.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit | Justin Raj S.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2010

Ficus plants are found throughout the world as moderate woody plants or trees. It has a vast traditional role in indigenious system of medicine like ayurveda, siddha, unani and homoeopathy. Ficus species, namely F. racemosa,, F. religiosa and F. benghalensis, are important ingredients in many Ayurvedic and traditional formulations. The barks,leaves,fruits and latex are considered to be very effective in various treatments, such as diabetes, skin diseases, ulcers, dysentry, diarrohoea, stomachache, piles and as carminative,astringent, anti inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer agent. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its phytochemical and pharmacological properties.


Joseph B.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit | Jini D.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

Salinity toxicity is a worldwide agricultural and eco-environmental problem. Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses faced by plants, which adversely affect their productivity. Salt stress causes reduction of crop yield and alterations in plant metabolism, including a reduced water potential, ion imbalances and toxicity and sometimes severe salt stress may even threaten survival. Salinity also leads to oxidative stress in plants due to the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) such as the super oxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generated during metabolic processes damage cellular functions and consequently lead to disease, senescence and cell death. Plants have evolved an efficient defense system by which the ROS is scavenged by antioxidant enzymes. Attempts to reduce oxidative damages under the salt stress conditions have included the manipulation of ROS scavenging enzymes by gene transfer technology. It is important to increase the productivity under stressful environment by developing plants that have well adapted to environmental stress through manipulating antioxidant system. In this study, the rational approaches to develop stress-tolerant plants by gene manipulation of antioxidant enzymes will be introduced to provide solutions for the global food and environmental problems in the 21st century. © 2011 Knowledgia Review, Malaysia.


Joseph B.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit | Raj S.J.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2010

An experiment was conducted on freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio to study the effect of the pesticide curacron on total serum protein. Curacron is an organophosphate pesticide and used by the farmers to protect their crops. This pesticide reaches the aquatic ecosystem by direct or indirect means and affects aquatic fauna. LC50 for curacron for C. carpio was calculated by the log-dose/probit regression line method and found to be 0.38 ppm at 96 h. Three sub-lethal concentrations (0.1, 0.01, and 0.001mLL-1) were selected to expose the fish for 1, 7, 14, and 21days. Changes in total serum protein were observed at all pesticide concentrations and exposure periods. Total serum protein was decreased from control. At 1 and 7 days, the decrease was quantitative at all concentrations, while at 14 and 21 days, the fall was significant at all concentrations. Hence, human population may be at risk by consuming these contaminated fish. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Joseph B.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit | Jini D.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit
Research Journal of Phytochemistry | Year: 2011

Capparis deciduais a dominating genus of the family Capparidaceae, yet important medicinal plant of Indian Medicinal Plants. Capparis sp. are xerophytic, growing in a broad range of climatic conditions, such as dry deserts to cooler terrains of mountain either as shrubs, trees or creepers. In the traditional system of medicine, the bark has been shown to be useful in the treatment of coughs, asthma and inflammation; roots used in fever and buds in the treatment of boils. In Unani, leaves act as appetizer, helps in cardiac troubles, fruits used in biliousness. The plant is reported to contain phytochemicals including alkaloids, terpenoids, glycosides and some fatty acids. In Unani, leaves act as appetizer, helps in cardiac troubles, used in biliousness; alveolaris and pyorrhea; Root bark is used as anthelmintic and purgative. The plant have significant pharmacological activities like hypercholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antidiabeti, antimicrobial, antiplaque, antihypertensive, antihelmintic and purgativ activities. The female flowers of some of the Capparis species are used as vegetable and fruits are used in pickle production because of their high nutritive ingredients like proteins, carbohydrate, minerals and vitamins. The review highlights medicinal importance of the plant Capparis decidua and unnoticed threatened status in their respective niches for sustainable use and long lasting conservation. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.


Joseph B.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit | Jini D.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit | Sujatha S.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit
Asian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2010

Salicylic Acid (SA) is an endogenous growth regulator of phenolic nature, which participates in the regulation of physiological processes in plants. It plays an important role in the plant response to adverse environmental conditions such as salinity. Meanwhile, soil salinity is a major constraint to food production because it limits crop yield and restricts use of land previously uncultivated. The SA plays an essential role in preventing oxidative damage in plants by detoxifying super oxide radicals, produced as a result of salinity. A review was highlighted the exogenous application of the lower concentrations of salicylic acid proved to be beneficial in enhancing the photosynthesis growth and various other physiological and biochemical characteristics of plants. Based on the morphology of the plants and parameters investigation it was concluded that SA tolerant plant, made quicker response to abiotic stresses. In the present review, we have focused on the effect of exogenous application of SA ant its protective effects on changing antioxidant enzyme activity for the salt tolerance in plants. © 2010 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Joseph B.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit | Jini D.,Interdisciplinary Research Unit
Journal of Plant Sciences | Year: 2010

Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses faced by plants, which adversely affect their productivity, affects large terrestrial areas of the world; the need to produce salt-tolerant crops is evident. Programmed Cell Death (PCD) plays an important role in mediating plant adaptive responses to the adverse environment such as salinity. Salinity that causes PCD in plant cells and is a substantial constraint to crop production. Two main approaches are being used to improve salt tolerance: (1) the exploitation of natural genetic variations, either through direct selection in stressful environments or through mapping quantitative trait loci and subsequent marker-assisted selection and (2) the generation of transgenic plants to introduce novel genes or to alter expression levels of the existing genes to affect the degree of salt stress tolerance. Cells subjected to salt stress showed a protective response which enabled them to survive. In the last few years, considerable progress has been made in the analysis of the transcriptome to study salt stress either alone or in combination with other abiotic stresses. However, there is no review that highlights the studies conducted to-date on salinity induced PCD in plants: Challenges and opportunities for salt tolerant plants. We believe that the present summary and perspective on salinity induced PCD in plants will provide a backbone to enable further studies on PCD occurs by salt stress and help to develop salt-tolerant plants through biotechnological strategies. © 2010 Academic Journals Inc.

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