Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience

Iowa City, IA, United States

Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience

Iowa City, IA, United States
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Narayanan N.S.,Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience | LaLumiere R.T.,University of Iowa
Learning and Memory | Year: 2016

The basolateral amygdala (BLA) modulates memory consolidation for a variety of types of learning, whereas other brain regions play more selective roles in specific kinds of learning suggesting a role for differential consolidation via distinct BLA pathways. The ventral hippocampus (VH), an efferent target of the BLA, has been suggested to selectively process emotionrelated learning, yet whether the BLA→VH pathway modulates memory consolidation, and does so in a learning-specific manner, is unknown. To address this issue, the BLA of male Sprague-Dawley rats was bilaterally transduced to express either ChR2(E123A) or eArchT3.0. Fiber optic probes were implanted in the VH to provide illumination of BLA axons. Rats then underwent a modified contextual fear conditioning task permitting separation of context and footshock learning. On day 1, rats received 3 min of pre-exposure to the apparatus. On day 2, rats were placed into the apparatus, received an immediate footshock, and quickly removed. Retention was tested on day 4. Optical stimulation of the BLA→VH pathway following footshock, but not context, training using trains of 40-Hz light pulses enhanced retention. Continuous optical inhibition of this pathway for 15 min starting 25 min after footshock training impaired retention. These findings indicate that BLA→VH projections influence the consolidation for footshock, but not context, learning of a modified CFC task and provide direct evidence that BLA projections to other brain regions modulate memory consolidation selectively depending on the kind of learning involved. © 2016 Eaton et al.


Vralsted V.C.,Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience | Welsh M.J.,Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience | Welsh M.J.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Wemmie J.A.,Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience | Wemmie J.A.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Genes, Brain and Behavior | Year: 2011

Previous studies on mice with a disruption of the gene encoding acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) suggest that ASIC1a is required for normal fear behavior. To investigate the effects of altering the subunit composition of brain ASICs on behavior, we developed transgenic mice expressing ASIC3 via the pan-neuronal synapsin I promoter. These mice express ASIC3 in the brain, where the endogenous ASIC3 protein is not detected. We found that in ASIC3 transgenic mice, ASIC3 co-immunoprecipitated with the endogenous ASIC1a protein and distributed in the same subcellular brain fractions as ASIC1a. In addition, ASIC3 significantly increased the rate of desensitization of acid-evoked currents in cultured cortical neurons. Importantly, ASIC3 reduced Pavlovian fear conditioning to both context and auditory cues. These observations suggest that ASIC3 can heteromultimerize with ASIC1a in the brain and alter the biophysical properties of the endogenous channel complex. Moreover, these data suggest that ASIC subunit composition and channel desensitization may be critical determinants for ASIC-dependent behavior. © 2011 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society. No claim to original US government works.


Iyengar A.,Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience | Imoehl J.,University of Iowa | Ueda A.,University of Iowa | Nirschl J.,University of Iowa | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Neurogenetics | Year: 2012

Automated tracking methods facilitate screening for and characterization of abnormal locomotion or more complex behaviors in Drosophila. We developed the Iowa Fly Locomotion and Interaction Tracker (IowaFLI Tracker), a MATLAB-based video analysis system, to identify and track multiple flies in a small arena. We report altered motor activity in the K+ and Na+ channel mutants, Hk1 and parats1, which had previously been shown to display abnormal larval locomotion. Environmental factors influencing individual behavior, such as available "social space," were studied by using IowaFLI Tracker to simultaneously track multiple flies in the same arena. We found that crowding levels affect individual fly activity, with the total movement of individual flies attenuated around a particular density. This observation may have important implications in the design of activity chambers for studying particular kinds of social interactions. IowaFLI Tracker also directly quantifies social interactions by tracking the amount of time individuals are in proximity to one another-visualized as an "interactogram." This feature enables the development of a "target-preference" assay to study male courtship behavior where males are presented with a choice between two immobilized, decapitated females, and their locomotion and interactions quantified. We used this assay to study the chemosensory mutants olf D (paraolf D, sbl 2) and Gr32a and their preferences towards virgin or mated females. Male olf D flies showed reduced courtship levels, with no clear preference towards either, whereas Gr32a males preferentially courted with virgin females over mated females in this assay. These initial results demonstrate that IowaFLI Tracker can be employed to explore motor coordination and social interaction phenomena in behavioral mutants of Drosophila. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


PubMed | Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neurogenetics | Year: 2012

Automated tracking methods facilitate screening for and characterization of abnormal locomotion or more complex behaviors in Drosophila. We developed the Iowa Fly Locomotion and Interaction Tracker (IowaFLI Tracker), a MATLAB-based video analysis system, to identify and track multiple flies in a small arena. We report altered motor activity in the K(+) and Na(+) channel mutants, Hk(1) and para(ts1), which had previously been shown to display abnormal larval locomotion. Environmental factors influencing individual behavior, such as available social space, were studied by using IowaFLI Tracker to simultaneously track multiple flies in the same arena. We found that crowding levels affect individual fly activity, with the total movement of individual flies attenuated around a particular density. This observation may have important implications in the design of activity chambers for studying particular kinds of social interactions. IowaFLI Tracker also directly quantifies social interactions by tracking the amount of time individuals are in proximity to one another-visualized as an interactogram. This feature enables the development of a target-preference assay to study male courtship behavior where males are presented with a choice between two immobilized, decapitated females, and their locomotion and interactions quantified. We used this assay to study the chemosensory mutants olf D (para(olfD), sbl(2)) and Gr32a and their preferences towards virgin or mated females. Male olf D flies showed reduced courtship levels, with no clear preference towards either, whereas Gr32a males preferentially courted with virgin females over mated females in this assay. These initial results demonstrate that IowaFLI Tracker can be employed to explore motor coordination and social interaction phenomena in behavioral mutants of Drosophila.


PubMed | Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience. and University of Iowa
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neuropsychology | Year: 2016

Retrieval of lexical (names) and conceptual (semantic) information is frequently impaired in individuals with neurological damage. One category of items that is often affected is musical instruments. However, distinct neuroanatomical correlates underlying lexical and conceptual knowledge for musical instruments have not been identified.We used a neuropsychological approach to explore the neural correlates of knowledge retrieval for musical instruments. A large sample of individuals with focal brain damage (N = 298), viewed pictures of 16 musical instruments and were asked to name and identify each instrument. Neuroanatomical data were analyzed with a proportional MAP-3 method to create voxelwise lesion proportion difference maps.Impaired naming (lexical retrieval) of musical instruments was associated with damage to the left temporal pole and inferior pre- and postcentral gyri. Impaired recognition (conceptual knowledge retrieval) of musical instruments was associated with a more broadly and bilaterally distributed network of regions, including ventromedial prefrontal cortices, occipital cortices, and superior temporal gyrus.The findings extend our understanding of how musical instruments are processed at neural system level, and elucidate factors that may explain why brain damage may or may not produce anomia or agnosia for musical instruments. Our findings also help inform broader understanding of category-related knowledge mapping in the brain, as musical instruments possess several characteristics that are similar to various other categories of items: They are inanimate and highly manipulable (similar to tools), produce characteristic sounds (similar to animals), and require fine-grained visual differentiation between each other (similar to people). (PsycINFO Database Record

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