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Fallman D.,Umea University | Fallman D.,Interactive Institute
AI and Society | Year: 2010

Traditional human-computer interaction (HCI) allowed researchers and practitioners to share and rely on the 'five E's' of usability, the principle that interactive systems should be designed to be effective, efficient, engaging, error tolerant, and easy to learn. A recent trend in HCI, however, is that academic researchers as well as practitioners are becoming increasingly interested in user experiences, i.e., understanding and designing for relationships between users and artifacts that are for instance affective, engaging, fun, playable, sociable, creative, involving, meaningful, exciting, ambiguous, and curious. In this paper, it is argued that built into this shift in perspective there is a concurrent shift in accountability that is drawing attention to a number of ethical, moral, social, cultural, and political issues that have been traditionally de-emphasized in a field of research guided by usability concerns. Not surprisingly, this shift in accountability has also received scarce attention in HCI. To be able to find any answers to the question of what makes a good user experience, the field of HCI needs to develop a philosophy of technology. One building block for such a philosophy of technology in HCI is presented. Albert Borgmann argues that we need to be cautious and rethink the relationship as well as the often-assumed correspondence between what we consider useful and what we think of as good in technology. This junction-that some technologies may be both useful and good, while some technologies that are useful for some purposes might also be harmful, less good, in a broader context-is at the heart of Borgmann's understanding of technology. Borgmann's notion of the device paradigm is a valuable contribution to HCI as it points out that we are increasingly experiencing the world with, through, and by information technologies and that most of these technologies tend to be designed to provide commodities that effortlessly grant our wishes without demanding anything in return, such as patience, skills, or effort. This paper argues that Borgmann's work is relevant and makes a valuable contribution to HCI in at least two ways: first, as a different way of seeing that raises important social, cultural, ethical, and moral issues from which contemporary HCI cannot escape; and second, as providing guidance as to how specific values might be incorporated into the design of interactive systems that foster engagement with reality. © Springer-Verlag London Limited 2009. Source


Fallman D.,Umea University | Fallman D.,Interactive Institute
AI and Society | Year: 2010

In this article, the concept of mobility is examined theoretically, from a phenomenological perspective, as well as empirically, through two design case studies. First, a background to how the notion of mobility is generally conceptualized and used in academia as well as within industry is provided. From a phenomenological analysis, it becomes necessary to question the currently dominating understanding of mobility as first and foremost a provider of freedom from a number of constraints. Rather, it is argued, mobility needs to be understood primarily as quite the opposite; as being about getting involved in different contexts. Based on this analysis, it is described how such an altered way of understanding mobility has come to challenge our design team's preconceptions of mobile interaction design and influence the design of two mobile support system for service and maintenance in industrial settings. © Springer-Verlag London Limited 2009. Source


Kuijer L.,Technical University of Delft | De Jong A.,Interactive Institute | Van Eijk D.,Technical University of Delft
ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction | Year: 2013

The sustainability challenges facing society today require approaches that look beyond single productuser interactions. Focusing on socially shared practices-e.g. cooking, laundering-has been identified as a promising direction. Building on a growing body of research in sustainable HCI that takes practices as unit of analysis, this article explores what it means to take practices as a unit of design. Drawing on theories of practice, it proposes that practice-oriented design approaches should: involve bodily performance, create crises of routine and generate a variety of performances. These guidelines were integrated into a Generative Improve Performances (GIP) approach, entailing a series of performances by improvisation actors with lowfidelity prototypes in a lab environment. The approach was implemented in an empirical study on bathing. Although the empirical example does not deal with common types of interactive technologies, the guidelines and GIP approach offer sustainable HCI a way to think beyond immediate interactions and to conceptualize change on a practice level. © 2013 ACM. Source


Nykanen A.,Lulea University of Technology | Johnsson R.,Lulea University of Technology | Sirkka A.,Interactive Institute | Johansson O.,AF Sound and Vibration
Applied Acoustics | Year: 2013

Auralization facilitates aural examination of contributions from different sound sources, individually and as parts of a context. Auralizations can be created by filtering sounds of perceptually salient sources through binaural transfer functions (BTFs) from source positions to a listening position. When such auralizations are used for product sound design it is essential to know that they are of sufficient quality. A basic requirement is that preference ratings are unaffected by the quality of the auralizations. The objective of this study was to measure changes in preference ratings of auralized engine sounds caused by changes in frequency resolution of used BTFs. Auralizations of engine sounds were created by filtering source sounds through BTFs measured from source positions to a driver's position inside a truck cabin. The BTFs were altered by lowering the frequency resolution and by smoothing in the frequency domain. Preferences for the auralizations were compared using a modified version of the MUlti Stimulus test with Hidden Reference and Anchor, MUSHRA (ITU-R BS.1534-1). Since the use of a reference is only appropriate when a reference known to be most preferred exists the reference was removed, resulting in a MUlti Stimulus Test with Hidden Anchors (MUSTHA). For assessment of the differences between the auralizations a statistical method commonly used for assessing agreement between methods of clinical measurement was adopted. The lowest frequency resolutions resulting in acceptable agreement between preference ratings of auralizations made with high frequency resolution (1 Hz) BTFs and auralizations made with simplified BTFs were 32 Hz frequency resolution or smoothing with either 1/24 octave bandwidth filters or 63 Hz absolute bandwidth filters. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Lundstrom C.,Linkoping University | Lundstrom C.,Sectra Imtec AB | Rydell T.,Interactive Institute | Forsell C.,Linkoping University | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics | Year: 2011

Medical imaging plays a central role in a vast range of healthcare practices. The usefulness of 3D visualizations has been demonstrated for many types of treatment planning. Nevertheless, full access to 3D renderings outside of the radiology department is still scarce even for many image-centric specialties. Our work stems from the hypothesis that this under-utilization is partly due to existing visualization systems not taking the prerequisites of this application domain fully into account. We have developed a medical visualization table intended to better fit the clinical reality. The overall design goals were two-fold: similarity to a real physical situation and a very low learning threshold. This paper describes the development of the visualization table with focus on key design decisions. The developed features include two novel interaction components for touch tables. A user study including five orthopedic surgeons demonstrates that the system is appropriate and useful for this application domain. © 2011 IEEE. Source

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