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Benli H.,Cukurova University | Sanchez-Plata M.X.,Inter American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture | Keeton J.T.,Texas A&M University
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2011

Salmonella contamination continues to be one of the major concerns for the microbiological safety of raw poultry products. Application of more than one decontamination agent as a multihurdle intervention to carcasses in a processing line might produce greater reductions than one treatment alone due to different modes of action of individual antimicrobials. In this study, all possible two-way combinations and individual applications of ε-polylysine (EPL), lauric arginate (LAE), and acidic calcium sulfate (ACS) solutions were evaluated for their effects against Salmonella enterica serovars, including Enteritidis and Typhimurium, using a sterile membrane filter model system. The combinations that provided higher Salmonella reductions were further evaluated on inoculated chicken carcasses in various concentrations applied in a sequential manner. Sequential spray applications of 300 mg of EPL per liter followed by 30% ACS and of 200 mg of LAE per liter followed by 30% ACS produced the highest Salmonella reductions on inoculated chicken carcasses, by 2.1 and 2.2 log CFU/ml, respectively. Our results indicated that these sequential spray applications of decontamination agents are effective for decreasing Salmonella contamination on poultry carcasses, but further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of these combinations over a storage period. Copyright © , International Association for Food Protection. Source

Thomas D.,Ministry of Agriculture | Delgado A.,Inter American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture | Delgado A.,Texas A&M University | Louison B.,Ministry of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

Vaccination of domestic pets is an important component of rabies control and prevention in countries where the disease is maintained in a wildlife reservoir. In Grenada, vaccine coverage rates were low, despite extensive public education and advertising of government-sponsored vaccine clinics where rabies vaccine is administered to animals at no cost to animal owners. Information was needed on reasons for decreased dog owner participation in government-funded rabies vaccination clinics. A total of 120 dog owners from 6 different parishes were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing their currently held beliefs about rabies vaccination and perception of the risk posed by rabies. Over 70% of respondents believed that problems in the organization and management of clinic sites could allow for fighting between dogs or disease spread among dogs, while 35% of owners did not believe that they had the ability or adequate help to bring their dogs to the clinic sites. Recommendations for improving vaccine coverage rates included: improved scheduling of clinic sites and dates; increased biosecurity at clinic locations; focused advertising on the availability of home visits, particularly for aggressive dogs or dogs with visible skin-related diseases such as mange; and the recruitment of community volunteers to assist with bringing dogs to the clinic sites. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. Source

Narciso-Gaytan C.,Colegio de Mexico | Shin D.,Texas A&M University | Sams A.R.,Texas A&M University | Keeton J.T.,Texas A&M University | And 3 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

Lipid oxidation is known to occur rather rapidly in cooked chicken meat containing relatively high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. To assess the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat enriched with n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids, 624 Cobb × Ross broilers were raised during a 6-wk feeding period. The birds were fed diets containing CLA (50% cis-9, trans-11 and 50% trans-10, cis-12 isomers), flaxseed oil (FSO), or menhaden fish oil (MFO), each supplemented with 42 or 200 mg/kg of vitamin E (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate). Breast or thigh meat was vacuum-packed, cooked (74°C), cooled in ice water, and stored at 4.4°C for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 d. The lipid oxidation development of the meat was estimated by quantification of malonaldehyde (MDA) values, using the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis. Fatty acid, nonheme iron, moisture, and fat analyses were performed as well. Results showed that dietary CLA induced deposition of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers, increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids, and decreased the proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed oil induced higher deposition of C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, and C20:4 fatty acids, whereas MFO induced higher deposition of n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; P < 0.05). Meat lipid oxidation stability was affected by the interaction of either dietary oil or vitamin E with storage day. Lower (P < 0.05) MDA values were found in the CLA treatment than in the MFO and FSO treatments. Lower (P < 0.05) MDA values were detected in meat samples from the 200 mg/kg of vitamin E than in meat samples from the 42 mg/kg of vitamin E. Nonheme iron values did not affect (P > 0.05) lipid oxidation development. In conclusion, dietary CLA, FSO, and MFO influenced the fatty acid composition of chicken muscle and the lipid oxidation stability of meat over the storage time. Supranutritional supplementation of vitamin E enhanced the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Shin D.,Texas A&M University | Shin D.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology | Yang H.-S.,Gyeongsang National University | Min B.-R.,University of Maryland Eastern Shore | And 4 more authors.
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources | Year: 2011

To evaluate the antioxidant effects of vitamin C, vitamin E and sorghum bran, alone or in combination on chicken sausages, 9 kg of chicken thigh meat was prepared. All thigh meat was divided into seven different batches as follows; no antioxidant (CON); vitamin C (VTC), vitamin E (VTE) or sorghum bran (SOR) at 0.02%; or three different combination ratios of vitamin C, vitamin E and sorghum bran at 0.02% (VT2, 2:1:1; VT4, 4:1:1; VT6, 6:1:1). All cooked sausages were stored at 4°C, and six sausages per treatment were used for chemical analysis on five different storage days. As the addition of vitamin E was increased, sausages stored for 10 d had decreased redness; thereby, VTE showed the lowest CIE a*(p<0.05). Sausages mixed with vitamins and sorghum bran combinations had lower peroxide and free fatty acid values (p<0.05) when compared to sausages without antioxidants. The TBARS were the lowest in sausages containing vitamin C, vitamin E and sorghum bran at 6:1:1 ratio, and they significantly differed to CON, VTC and SOR treatments (p<0.05). Therefore, our results suggest that meat mixed with vitamins and sorghum bran had more antioxidant activity than the meat mixed with only antioxidant vitamins or without antioxidants. Source

Roberts J.,University of the West Indies | Chang-Yen I.,University of the West Indies | Bekele F.,University of the West Indies | Bekele I.,University of the West Indies | Harrynanan L.,Inter American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2014

A method was developed and validated for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA), a fungal metabolite, in cocoa beans of high fat content. The sample was extracted by blending with a 1% sodium bicarbonate solution (pH 10) followed by ultrasonication, and the sample was defatted by treatment with a flocculant. The defatted sample was purified using immunoaffinity column chromatography, and OTA was detected using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The method was fully optimized, validated, and quality controlled using spike recovery analyses, with recoveries of 89-105% over spiking ranges of 320-2.5 ng/g with CV of analyses generally <10% over 4 consecutive years and an LOQ of 0.66 ng/g in cocoa bean samples. This method overcomes the problems posed by the high fat contents of cocoa and chocolate samples with a high degree of reliability. Source

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