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Garcia H.H.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Gonzalez A.E.,National Major San Marcos University | Tsang V.C.W.,National Center for Infectious Diseases | Tsang V.C.W.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 12 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Taeniasis and cysticercosis are major causes of seizures and epilepsy. Infection by the causative parasite Taenia solium requires transmission between humans and pigs. The disease is considered to be eradicable, but data on attempts at regional elimination are lacking. We conducted a three-phase control program in Tumbes, Peru, to determine whether regional elimination would be feasible. METHODS: We systematically tested and compared elimination strategies to show the feasibility of interrupting the transmission of T. solium infection in a region of highly endemic disease in Peru. In phase 1, we assessed the effectiveness and feasibility of six intervention strategies that involved screening of humans and pigs, antiparasitic treatment, prevention education, and pig replacement in 42 villages. In phase 2, we compared mass treatment with mass screening (each either with or without vaccination of pigs) in 17 villages. In phase 3, we implemented the final strategy of mass treatment of humans along with the mass treatment and vaccination of pigs in the entire rural region of Tumbes (107 villages comprising 81,170 people and 55,638 pigs). The effect of the intervention was measured after phases 2 and 3 with the use of detailed necropsy to detect pigs with live, nondegenerated cysts capable of causing new infection. The necropsy sampling was weighted in that we preferentially included more samples from seropositive pigs than from seronegative pigs. RESULTS: Only two of the strategies implemented in phase 1 resulted in limited control over the transmission of T. solium infection, which highlighted the need to intensify the subsequent strategies. After the strategies in phase 2 were implemented, no cyst that was capable of further transmission of T. solium infection was found among 658 sampled pigs. One year later, without further intervention, 7 of 310 sampled pigs had live, nondegenerated cysts, but no infected pig was found in 11 of 17 villages, including all the villages in which mass antiparasitic treatment plus vaccination was implemented. After the final strategy was implemented in phase 3, a total of 3 of 342 pigs had live, nondegenerated cysts, but no infected pig was found in 105 of 107 villages. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that the transmission of T. solium infection was interrupted on a regional scale in a highly endemic region in Peru. Copyright © 2016 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Shin D.,Texas A&M University | Shin D.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology | Yang H.-S.,Gyeongsang National University | Min B.-R.,University of Maryland Eastern Shore | And 4 more authors.
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources | Year: 2011

To evaluate the antioxidant effects of vitamin C, vitamin E and sorghum bran, alone or in combination on chicken sausages, 9 kg of chicken thigh meat was prepared. All thigh meat was divided into seven different batches as follows; no antioxidant (CON); vitamin C (VTC), vitamin E (VTE) or sorghum bran (SOR) at 0.02%; or three different combination ratios of vitamin C, vitamin E and sorghum bran at 0.02% (VT2, 2:1:1; VT4, 4:1:1; VT6, 6:1:1). All cooked sausages were stored at 4°C, and six sausages per treatment were used for chemical analysis on five different storage days. As the addition of vitamin E was increased, sausages stored for 10 d had decreased redness; thereby, VTE showed the lowest CIE a*(p<0.05). Sausages mixed with vitamins and sorghum bran combinations had lower peroxide and free fatty acid values (p<0.05) when compared to sausages without antioxidants. The TBARS were the lowest in sausages containing vitamin C, vitamin E and sorghum bran at 6:1:1 ratio, and they significantly differed to CON, VTC and SOR treatments (p<0.05). Therefore, our results suggest that meat mixed with vitamins and sorghum bran had more antioxidant activity than the meat mixed with only antioxidant vitamins or without antioxidants.


Shin D.,Texas A&M University | Shin D.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology | Choi S.H.,Texas A&M University | Go G.,Yale University | And 6 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

To minimize the amount of n-6 fatty acids in broiler chicken meat, 120 Cobb × Ross male broilers were divided into 6 different groups and fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet containing 5% fat from 5 different lipid sources: 1) a commercial mix of animal and vegetable oil, 2) soybean oil and olive oil (2.5% each), 3) flaxseed oil and olive oil (2.5% each), 4) flaxseed oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5; EPA; n-3), and olive oil (2.45, 0.05, and 2.5% respectively; FEO), 5) flaxseed oil, docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; DHA; n-3), and olive oil (2.45, 0.05, and 2.5% respectively; FDO), and 6) fish oil and olive oil (2.5% each; FHO). At 6 and 9 wk, one bird per pen (4 pens per treatment) was processed, and liver, breast, and thigh samples were collected and used for fatty acid profiles or Δ6- and Δ9-desaturase mRNA gene expression levels. The deposition of linoleic acid (C18:2; n-6) or arachidonic acid (C20:4; n-6) was decreased in breast and thigh muscles of chickens fed n-3 fatty acids for 9 wk compared with chickens fed animal and vegetable oil and soybean oil and olive oil diets (P < 0.05). The addition of EPA to the diet (FEO; P > 0.05) did not reduce the deposition of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid as much as DHA (FDO; P < 0.05), and it suppressed the expression of Δ6- and Δ9-desaturase. When EPA and DHA were blended (FHO) and supplied to broiler chickens for 9 wk, EPA and DHA combination effects were observed on the deposition of LA and arachidonic acid in breast and thigh muscles. Thereby, the addition of a mixed EPA and DHA to a broiler chicken diet may be recommendable to reduce arachidonic acid accumulation in both broiler chicken breast and thigh meats, providing a functional broiler chicken meat to consumers. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Roberts J.,University of the West Indies | Chang-Yen I.,University of the West Indies | Bekele F.,University of the West Indies | Bekele I.,University of the West Indies | Harrynanan L.,Inter American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2014

A method was developed and validated for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA), a fungal metabolite, in cocoa beans of high fat content. The sample was extracted by blending with a 1% sodium bicarbonate solution (pH 10) followed by ultrasonication, and the sample was defatted by treatment with a flocculant. The defatted sample was purified using immunoaffinity column chromatography, and OTA was detected using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The method was fully optimized, validated, and quality controlled using spike recovery analyses, with recoveries of 89-105% over spiking ranges of 320-2.5 ng/g with CV of analyses generally <10% over 4 consecutive years and an LOQ of 0.66 ng/g in cocoa bean samples. This method overcomes the problems posed by the high fat contents of cocoa and chocolate samples with a high degree of reliability.


Narciso-Gaytan C.,Colegio de Mexico | Shin D.,Texas A&M University | Sams A.R.,Texas A&M University | Keeton J.T.,Texas A&M University | And 3 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

Lipid oxidation is known to occur rather rapidly in cooked chicken meat containing relatively high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. To assess the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat enriched with n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids, 624 Cobb × Ross broilers were raised during a 6-wk feeding period. The birds were fed diets containing CLA (50% cis-9, trans-11 and 50% trans-10, cis-12 isomers), flaxseed oil (FSO), or menhaden fish oil (MFO), each supplemented with 42 or 200 mg/kg of vitamin E (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate). Breast or thigh meat was vacuum-packed, cooked (74°C), cooled in ice water, and stored at 4.4°C for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 d. The lipid oxidation development of the meat was estimated by quantification of malonaldehyde (MDA) values, using the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis. Fatty acid, nonheme iron, moisture, and fat analyses were performed as well. Results showed that dietary CLA induced deposition of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers, increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids, and decreased the proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed oil induced higher deposition of C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, and C20:4 fatty acids, whereas MFO induced higher deposition of n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; P < 0.05). Meat lipid oxidation stability was affected by the interaction of either dietary oil or vitamin E with storage day. Lower (P < 0.05) MDA values were found in the CLA treatment than in the MFO and FSO treatments. Lower (P < 0.05) MDA values were detected in meat samples from the 200 mg/kg of vitamin E than in meat samples from the 42 mg/kg of vitamin E. Nonheme iron values did not affect (P > 0.05) lipid oxidation development. In conclusion, dietary CLA, FSO, and MFO influenced the fatty acid composition of chicken muscle and the lipid oxidation stability of meat over the storage time. Supranutritional supplementation of vitamin E enhanced the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Benli H.,Cukurova University | Sanchez-Plata M.X.,Inter American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture | Keeton J.T.,Texas A&M University
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2011

Salmonella contamination continues to be one of the major concerns for the microbiological safety of raw poultry products. Application of more than one decontamination agent as a multihurdle intervention to carcasses in a processing line might produce greater reductions than one treatment alone due to different modes of action of individual antimicrobials. In this study, all possible two-way combinations and individual applications of ε-polylysine (EPL), lauric arginate (LAE), and acidic calcium sulfate (ACS) solutions were evaluated for their effects against Salmonella enterica serovars, including Enteritidis and Typhimurium, using a sterile membrane filter model system. The combinations that provided higher Salmonella reductions were further evaluated on inoculated chicken carcasses in various concentrations applied in a sequential manner. Sequential spray applications of 300 mg of EPL per liter followed by 30% ACS and of 200 mg of LAE per liter followed by 30% ACS produced the highest Salmonella reductions on inoculated chicken carcasses, by 2.1 and 2.2 log CFU/ml, respectively. Our results indicated that these sequential spray applications of decontamination agents are effective for decreasing Salmonella contamination on poultry carcasses, but further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of these combinations over a storage period. Copyright © , International Association for Food Protection.


Narciso-Gaytan C.,Colegio de Mexico | Shin D.,Texas A&M University | Sams A.R.,Texas A&M University | Keeton J.T.,Texas A&M University | And 3 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2010

The fatty acid composition of chicken muscle may affect the lipid oxidation stability of the meat, particularly when subjecting the meat to thermal processing and storage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diet effect on lipid oxidation stability of fresh and cooked chicken meat. Six hundred broilers were raised for a 6-wk feeding period and were assigned to 8 treatments with 3 repetitions. Broilers were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet, including 5% of either animal-vegetable, lard, palm kernel, or soybean (SB) oil, each supplemented with a low (33 mg/kg) or high (200 to 400 mg/kg) level of vitamin E. Fresh breast and thigh meat and skin were packaged and refrigerated (4°C) for 15 d. Breast and thigh meat were frozen (-20°C) and stored for ~6 mo and then thawed, deboned, ground, and formed into patties of 150 g each. Patties were cooked (74°C), cooled, packaged, and stored in refrigeration for 6 d. The lipid oxidation development of the products was determined using the TBA reactive substances analysis. The results showed that the lipid oxidation development, in both fresh chicken parts and cooked meat patties, was influenced by the interaction of either dietary lipid source or vitamin E level with storage time. Fresh breast meat showed no susceptibility to lipid oxidation, but thigh meat and skin presented higher (P < 0.05) malonaldehyde values in the SB oil treatment, starting at d 10 of storage. In cooked patties, during the entire storage time, the SB oil showed the highest (P < 0.05) lipid oxidation development compared with the other treatments. Regarding vitamin E, in both fresh parts and cooked meat patties, in most sampling days the high supplemented level showed lower (P < 0.05) malonaldehyde values than the control treatment. In conclusion, the lipid oxidation stability of chicken meat is influenced by the lipid source and vitamin E level included in the diet upon storage time and processing of the meat. © 2010 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Narciso-Gaytan C.,Colegio de Mexico | Shin D.,Texas A&M University | Sams A.R.,Texas A&M University | Bailey C.A.,Texas A&M University | And 4 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2010

There is an increasing demand in precooked chicken meat products for restaurants and catering services. Because cooked chicken meat develops lipid oxidation relatively fast, sous vide chicken meat was studied to assess its shelf-life. Six hundred Cobb × Ross broilers were fed for 6 wk with a basal cornsoybean meal diet including soybean, palm kernel, or animal-vegetable oil, each supplemented with 33 or 200 mg/kg of dl-α-tocopheryl acetate. Broilers were randomly assigned into 6 treatments and 4 repetitions with 25 birds each. Boneless breast or thigh muscle pieces were dissected into 5 × 5 × 5 cm cubes, vacuumpacked, cooked in water bath (until 74°C internal temperature), chilled, and stored at 4°C for 1, 5, 10, 25, and 40 d. For each storage day, each pouch contained 3 pieces of meat, either breast or thigh. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis, to quantify malonaldehyde (MDA) values, was conducted to estimate the lipid oxidation development. Nonheme iron values of cooked meat were analyzed. Fatty acid methyl esters analysis was performed in chicken muscle to determine its fatty acid composition. There was no interaction between dietary fat and vitamin E level in all of the variables studied except in nonheme iron. Dietary fat significantly influenced the fatty acid composition of the muscle (P < 0.01), but it did not affect the MDA values, regardless of differences in the muscle fatty acid composition between treatments. Supplementation of the high level of vitamin E significantly reduced the MDA values in both breast and thigh meat (P < 0.01). The maximum MDA values were observed at d 40 of storage in thigh and breast meat in animal-vegetable and soybean oil treatments with the low levels of vitamin E, 0.91 and 0.70 mg/kg, respectively. Nonheme iron values in thigh meat differed between treatments at 1 or 25 d of storage but not in breast meat. In conclusion, refrigerated sous vide chicken meat has a prolonged shelf-life, which is enhanced by dietary supranutritional supplementation of vitamin E.


Thomas D.,Ministry of Agriculture | Delgado A.,Inter American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture | Delgado A.,Texas A&M University | Louison B.,Ministry of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

Vaccination of domestic pets is an important component of rabies control and prevention in countries where the disease is maintained in a wildlife reservoir. In Grenada, vaccine coverage rates were low, despite extensive public education and advertising of government-sponsored vaccine clinics where rabies vaccine is administered to animals at no cost to animal owners. Information was needed on reasons for decreased dog owner participation in government-funded rabies vaccination clinics. A total of 120 dog owners from 6 different parishes were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing their currently held beliefs about rabies vaccination and perception of the risk posed by rabies. Over 70% of respondents believed that problems in the organization and management of clinic sites could allow for fighting between dogs or disease spread among dogs, while 35% of owners did not believe that they had the ability or adequate help to bring their dogs to the clinic sites. Recommendations for improving vaccine coverage rates included: improved scheduling of clinic sites and dates; increased biosecurity at clinic locations; focused advertising on the availability of home visits, particularly for aggressive dogs or dogs with visible skin-related diseases such as mange; and the recruitment of community volunteers to assist with bringing dogs to the clinic sites. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Shin D.,Texas A&M University | Shin D.,Hallym University | Narciso-Gaytan C.,Colegio de Mexico | Park J.H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

This study was conducted to determine the effects of the combination of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 fatty acids on the linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) concentrations of broiler chicken breast and thigh muscles. One hundred and twenty broilers were raised to 6 wk of age. All chicks were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet containing 5 different fat sources at an inclusion level of 2% total fat: 1) CLA, 2) flaxseed oil, 3) menhaden fish oil, 4) CLA and flaxseed oil, and 5) CLA and menhaden fish oil. Eight broilers from each treatment were processed at 4 and 6 wk of age. Breast and thigh muscle samples were collected and analyzed for total fat content and fatty acid composition. The results showed that broilers from the CLA and fish oil treatment had lower arachidonic acid concentrations in both breast and thigh muscles than those fed the flaxseed oil diet or the CLA and flaxseed oil diet (P < 0.05). The arachidonic acid concentration and n-6:n-3 ratio of breast and thigh samples from the menhaden fish oil diet were similar to those of the CLA and fish oil diet (P > 0.05), but the inclusion of linoleic acid into chicken thigh muscles of broilers fed the CLA and menhaden fish oil diet improved significantly when compared with that of the diet containing menhaden fish oil only. Thus, the combination of CLA and menhaden fish oil is recommended to reduce the concentrations of linoleic and arachidonic acids in broiler chicken breast and thigh muscles. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.

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