Strand J.,Inter American Development Bank
Ecological Economics | Year: 2017
The economic value of a rainforest is modeled as a dynamic asset subject to fire risk and potential increase in dryness. I solve two Bellman equations, for unburnt and for already burnt forest, to derive analytically tractable expressions for the total expected, spatially differentiated, asset value of the forest in each state assuming constant growth and forest loss rates over time. I derive the marginal expected discounted value loss when losing a small additional piece of forest, at any alternative site in the forest. Marginal forest value is found to increase when the risk of forest fire increases due to forest fragmentation when forest is lost locally; and also when forest dryness, affecting forest values negatively, increases upon forest fragmentation. Both forest fire risk and dryness serve as “multipliers” on the basic services return loss, both within and outside of the forest. Increased forest fire risk is found to reduce average rainforest value by reducing their future expected lifespans and current returns; but to increase marginal forest value by making primary forest loss avoidance more valuable. I calibrate the model including the impact of the forest fire risk component on forest value, with multipliers in a typical range 1.3–1.5. © 2016
Ubfal D.,University of California at Los Angeles |
Maffioli A.,Inter American Development Bank
Research Policy | Year: 2011
In this paper we evaluate the impact of research grants on the amount of collaboration among scientific researchers in Argentina. We find a positive and significant impact of funding on collaboration which is measured in terms of the number of co-authors for publications in peer-reviewed journals. Our identification strategy is based on comparing collaboration indicators for researchers with financially supported projects with those of a control group of researchers who submitted projects that were accepted in terms of quality, but not supported because of shortage of funds. We obtain consistent results by using different non-experimental techniques including difference-in-differences models combined with propensity score matching algorithms. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lora E.,Inter American Development Bank
Health Policy and Planning | Year: 2012
The influence of cultural patterns and economic conditions on health perceptions in Latin America is studied using the results of the 2007 Gallup World Poll. The differences in health satisfaction between countries around the world have a robust association with variables that may reflect cultural differences rather than with aggregate economic variables or traditional health indicators. Simple health self-rating indicators reveal huge cultural differences in health perceptions in Latin America. However, within each country, differences correlate strongly with individuals' economic and health conditions. Lower-income groups recognize more health problems, but are less tolerant of some of them than the rich. © 2011 The Author all rights reserved.
Garcia-Prado A.,Inter American Development Bank |
Gonzalez P.,Pablo De Olavide University
Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law | Year: 2011
This article presents a thorough analysis of dual practice among physicians who work in both the public and private sectors. A conceptual framework is presented to help the reader understand dual practice and the contexts where it takes place. The article reviews the existing theoretical and empirical literature on this form of dual practice among physicians. It analyzes the extent of this phenomenon, the underlying factors that motivate physicians to engage in dual practice, and the main implications of their decision to do so. It also examines and discusses current policies that address dual practice. In this regard, the article provides some qualified support for the use of "rewarding" policies to retain physicians in the public sectors of more developed countries, while "limiting" policies are recommended for developing countries - with the caveat that the policies should be accompanied by the strengthening of institutional and contracting environments. The article highlights the lack of quality evaluative evidence regarding the consequences of dual practice on the delivery of health care services. It concludes that the overall impact of dual practice remains an open question that warrants more attention from researchers and policy makers alike. © 2011 by Duke University Press.
Avitabile C.,Inter American Development Bank |
Avitabile C.,New York University
Journal of Human Resources | Year: 2012
We use data from the evaluation sample of Mexico's Food Assistance Program (PAL) to study whether including the attendance at health and nutrition classes among the requirements for receiving a transfer affects the health behavior of adults living in localities targeted by the program. The experimental trial has four different treatment types, randomly assigned to four groups of localities, one of which receives the in-kind transfer without the requirement to attend any health or nutrition sessions. Adult women living in localities where the in-kind transfer is conditional on class attendance display a significantly better health behavior than those living in localities where it is not. There is no significant evidence of changes in health outcomes among men. © 2012 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.
Guanais F.C.,Inter American Development Bank
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2013
Objective. To propose a method for the interpolation of yearly local-level covariates of health status that is suitable for panel data analysis of the effect of health services. Methods. The proposed method distributes the yearly rate of growth of covariates at the regional level (e.g., state) from household survey data, and applies it to interpolate yearly data at the local level (e.g., municipality) between two consecutive census surveys. The method was applied to municipal-level socioeconomic covariates of health status in Brazil for every year between 2001 and 2009. The data was tested on a previously validated analysis of the effects of the Family Health Program on post-neonatal infant mortality in Brazil. Results. A total of 895 628 values were generated for 20 socioeconomic predictors of health status. Valid data were obtained for 5 057 municipalities in the Northeast, Southeast, South, and Center-West regions of Brazil, from 2001 to 2009, covering 98.89% of the municipalities in these regions and 90.87% of municipalities in the country. A supplemental annex includes the interpolated data from 2001 to 2009, plus the 2000 and 2010 census data, for all 5 057 municipalities. An application on a fixed-effect regression model suggested that, compared to linear interpolation, the proposed method reduced multi-collinearity and improved the precision of the estimates of the effects of health services. Conclusions. The advantages of the proposed interpolation method suggest that it is a feasible solution for panel data analysis of health services at the local level in Brazil and other countries.
Schady N.,Inter American Development Bank
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011
Objectives: I estimated the association between parents' education, mothers' vocabulary, and early child cognitive development in a sample of poor children in rural Ecuador. Methods: I used regression analysis to estimate the association between parents' education, mothers' vocabulary, and the vocabulary, memory, and visual integration skills of children at early ages, controlling for possible confounders. The study is based on a longitudinal cohort of children in rural Ecuador (n=2118). Results: The schooling and vocabulary levels of mothers were strong predictors of the cognitive development of young children. Household wealth and child's height, weight, and hemoglobin levels explained only a modest fraction of the observed associations. The vocabulary levels of mothers and children were more strongly correlated among older children in the sample, suggesting that the effects of a richer maternal vocabulary are cumulative. Conclusions: Differences in children's cognitive outcomes start very early, which has important implications for the intergenerational transmission of poverty and inequality. Programs that seek to increase early stimulation for disadvantaged children, perhaps through parenting programs or high-quality center-based care, hold promise.
Cavallo E.,Inter American Development Bank |
Noy I.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics | Year: 2011
This paper surveys the state of the economic literature examining the aggregate impacts of natural disasters. The paper reviews the main disaster data sources available, discusses the determinants of the direct effects of disasters, and distinguishes between short-and long-run indirect effects. The paper then examines some of the relevant policy questions and follows up with a survey of current projections about the likelihood of future disasters. The paper ends by identifying several significant gaps in the literature. © 2011 E. Cavallo and I. Noy.
Martincus C.V.,Inter American Development Bank
Journal of Regional Science | Year: 2010
Does trade policy shape a country's internal economic geography? Empirical evidence on the spatial effects of trade policy in developing countries is limited. This paper contributes to this literature by looking at the experience of Brazil over the 1990s. In particular, an econometric analysis of the determinants of industrial location using data on regional manufacturing employment as well as data on several region and industry characteristics over the period 1990-1998 is performed. Estimation results suggest that trade openness favored location in states closer to the largest neighbor trading partner and that this effect increased through the end of the 1990s. © 2009, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
News Article | December 16, 2016
Brazil’s National Development Bank (BNDES) has raised $750m from the Inter American Development Bank (IDB) to finance wind, solar and biomass projects. The money is part of a 10-year, $2.4bn credit line extended by IDB to BNDES to finance sustainable and industrial ventures. The federal government will offer guarantees to the IDB for the loan, with projects to be financed those already in BNDES’ portfolio. The Brazilian bank’s contribution will be $150m. “BNDES’ policy of raising money from international financial institutions has as its main objective diversity of the bank’s capital sources and creating an adequate budget for its credit operations,” BNDES said in a statement. BNDES has four years to disburse the money, with loans based on the three-month LIBOR rate on top of IDB’s own loan cost. BNDES is Brazil’s principal financing agent for renewable energy projects, with over R$25bn ($7bn) lent to the wind power industry in the country. With rates of about 12% a year, it is the lowest in the country for renewable power. In 2015, it lend R$6bn to wind projects and is expected to sign the same amount this year. BNDES has other financing arrangements with Japan’s development bank JBIC ($100m) and Germany’s KfW ($335m). Brazil this week dismayed its wind and solar sectors by cancelling the last possible tender of 2016 in which they could obtain power contracts.