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Hayashi N.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Ujihara T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Chen R.,Intelligent Sensor Technology Inc. | Irie K.,Intelligent Sensor Technology Inc. | Ikezaki H.,Intelligent Sensor Technology Inc.
Food Research International | Year: 2013

In order to objectively indicate the bitter taste intensities of black and oolong teas on the basis of a permanent standard point, a taste sensor method was developed that calibrated the sensor outputs with standard solutions prepared with only pure chemicals. Ethyl gallate (EG) was used as the standard substance. The sensor outputs were converted into the bitter taste intensities using two EG solutions at different concentrations. The astringent taste intensities of these teas were evaluated by the similar method. In this case, (-)-epigallochatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCg) was used as the standard substance. These evaluation results by the taste sensor system showed a similar tendency as those by human gustatory sense. Relative standard deviations of the sensor results revealed that these evaluation methods possessed enough practical precisions. Two-dimensional mapping analysis of the bitter and astringent taste intensities showed that, as a whole, the taste intensities of the Indian and Sri Lankan black tea samples had a tendency to be stronger than those of the Chinese oolong tea samples under the sample preparation conditions in this study. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Hayashi N.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Chen R.,Intelligent Sensor Technology Inc. | Hiraoka M.,Intelligent Sensor Technology Inc. | Ujihara T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Ikezaki H.,Intelligent Sensor Technology Inc.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

To develop a methodology for creating a sensor with a receptor for specific taste substances, we focused on constructing a sensing system for the bitter-astringent taste intensity of green tea catechins: (-)-epigallocatechin- 3-O-gallate (EGCg), (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECg), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and (-)-epicatechin (EC). 1H NMR titration experiments revealed that β -cyclodextrin was an adequate receptor for sensing the bitter-astringent taste intensity of catechins. A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system immobilized β-cyclodextrin indicated larger responses for the gallate-type catechins in comparison to the non-gallate-type catechins. These responses corresponded to the tendency of the bitter-astringent taste intensity of the catechins felt by humans. Furthermore, the SPR system detected the larger stability of the complex between the gallate-type catechins and β-cyclodextrin, which was interpreted as the aftertaste produced in humans by the gallate-type catechins. These results demonstrate that the β-cyclodextrin/SPR system can sense the bitter-astringent taste intensity of the green tea catechins similar to human gustation. The methodology presented in this study can be used as a basic strategy for developing taste sensors with specific receptor functions. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Harada T.,Eisai Co. | Uchida T.,Mukogawa Women's University | Yoshida M.,Mukogawa Women's University | Kobayashi Y.,Intelligent Sensor Technology Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness and wide applicability of a taste sensor and a new disintegration testing apparatus in the development and/or evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). In this paper, we described methods for the effective utilization of a taste sensor in the development of a new medicine. First we predicted the taste of propiverine hydrochloride, a model drug substance whose taste is unknown, using a taste sensor. Then we screened masking agents for their ability to suppress the bitterness of propiverine hydrochloride, and manufactured ODTs of propiverine hydrochloride with various masking agents. The tastes of these ODTs were then evaluated in chronological order by combining the taste sensor with the new disintegration testing apparatus, ODT-101, to resemble the oral cavity. As a result, we were able to evaluate the taste of propiverine hydrochloride and the effectiveness of various masking agents in ODTs. The result using this combination of taste sensor and ODT-101 shows good agreement with the results of human gustatory sensation testing, thus demonstrating the usefulness and applicability of the taste sensor and disintegration testing apparatus, ODT-101, in the development of new medicine. © 2010 Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.


Yasuura M.,Kyushu University | Tahara Y.,Kyushu University | Ikezaki H.,Intelligent Sensor Technology Inc. | Toko K.,Kyushu University
Sensors (Switzerland) | Year: 2014

Taste evaluation technology has been developed by several methods, such as sensory tests, electronic tongues and a taste sensor based on lipid/polymer membranes. In particular, the taste sensor can individually quantify five basic tastes without multivariate analysis. However, it has proven difficult to develop a sweetness sensor, because sweeteners are classified into three types according to the electric charges in an aqueous solution; that is, no charge, negative charge and positive charge. Using membrane potential measurements, the taste-sensing system needs three types of sensor membrane for each electric charge type of sweetener. Since the commercially available sweetness sensor was only intended for uncharged sweeteners, a sweetness sensor for positively charged high-potency sweeteners such as aspartame was developed in this study. Using a lipid and plasticizers, we fabricated various lipid/polymer membranes for the sweetness sensor to identify the suitable components of the sensor membranes. As a result, one of the developed sensors showed responses of more than 20 mV to 10 mM aspartame and less than 5 mV to any other taste. The responses of the sensor depended on the concentration ofaspartame. These results suggested that the developed sweetness sensor had high sensitivity to and high selectivity for aspartame. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Kobayashi Y.,Intelligent Sensor Technology Inc. | Kobayashi Y.,Kyushu University | Habara M.,Kyushu University | Ikezazki H.,Intelligent Sensor Technology Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Sensors | Year: 2010

Effective R&D and strict quality control of a broad range of foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical products require objective taste evaluation. Advanced taste sensors using artificial-lipid membranes have been developed based on concepts of global selectivity and high correlation with human sensory score. These sensors respond similarly to similar basic tastes, which they quantify with high correlations to sensory score. Using these unique properties, these sensors can quantify the basic tastes of saltiness, sourness, bitterness, umami, astringency and richness without multivariate analysis or artificial neural networks. This review describes all aspects of these taste sensors based on artificial lipid, ranging from the response principle and optimal design methods to applications in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical markets. © 2010 by the authors.


Ikezaki H.,Intelligent Sensor Technology Inc.
IEEJ Transactions on Sensors and Micromachines | Year: 2015

In this paper, business application of the Taste Sensing System is described. Development races of private labelbrands are heating up in the domestic food industry. It is because consumer needs are diversifying year by year and need to respond them to survive in the market. Thorough pursuit of consumer needs is crucial in product developments. A taste sensor can visualize the needs into numerical data. As a result, a concept of product development becomes clear and therefore its target values are clarified. Besides that, cost reduction and a reduction in the number of raw materials can be possible by applying a mathematical optimization based on a database of sensor outputs. Effective appealing to buyers and consumers is realized by showing characteristics of a new product or renewal product in digitized taste data. In the global market, taste preferences depending on regions are not easy to understand and communicate with each other through their own languages. To understand the differences, a common taste measure is required. By using the measure of taste, it is possible to make smooth communication between producers of farm products and food manufactures. © 2015 The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan.


Ikezaki H.,Intelligent Sensor Technology Inc.
Yakugaku Zasshi | Year: 2014

In pharmaceutical fields, the palatability of drug formulation has been attracted, especially for children. It is excellent that pediatric medicines are delivered to a famine-stricken area on volunteer work. However, children cannot take extremely bitter drug because they are said to be highly sensitive to bitterness. Therefore, we contribute to the development of formulation palatable to children by providing pharmaceutical industry with "the measure of taste". In taste sensing technology, we established two methods to control the sensor's characteristics by optimizing both electric density and hydrophobicity of membrane. These innovative approaches enable the development advanced taste sensors to fulfill the 4 types of requirements: (1) The threshold of taste sensors must be the same as the human taste threshold; (2) Taste sensors must respond consistently to the same taste like the human tongue; (3) There must be a clearly defined unit of information from taste sensors; and (4) Taste sensors must detect interactions between taste substances. © 2014 The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.


Akitomi H.,Kyushu University | Tahara Y.,Kyushu University | Yasuura M.,Kyushu University | Kobayashi Y.,Intelligent Sensor Technology Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2013

In this study, we quantified the tastes of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and demonstrated the bitterness suppression effect using taste sensors that can selectively evaluate two basic taste qualities. Bitterness and sweetness sensors with a lipid/polymer membrane were used to quantity bitterness and sweetness of amino acids, respectively. Simple linear regression analysis revealed that the response values obtained from the corresponding taste sensor (bitterness, sweetness) and the scores obtained in the sensory test showed a strong correlation, demonstrating that the intensity of bitterness and sweetness of amino acids can be estimated. Moreover, a significant decrease in the response value of the bitterness sensor was observed when L-arginine (L-Arg) was added to bitter amino acids, indicating that the bitterness suppression effect perceivable by humans can be demonstrated. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Yasuura M.,Kyushu University | Okazaki H.,Kyushu University | Tahara Y.,Kyushu University | Ikezaki H.,Intelligent Sensor Technology Inc. | Toko K.,Kyushu University
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2014

Objective taste evaluation has been much in demand in the food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries. A taste-sensing system, which is an electronic tongue with "global selectivity," is one of the methods used for objective taste evaluation. A taste sensor electrode responds to only one of the basic tastes (saltiness, sourness, sweetness, bitterness and umami) as a change in membrane potential caused by interactions with tastants. Sweet substances are compounds with diverse chemical structures and sizes. Since the taste-sensing system is a potentiometric measurement system using a change in membrane potential, three types of sweetness sensors are required, one for sweeteners with each type of electric charge (uncharged, positively charged and negatively charged). A sweetness sensor for uncharged sweeteners has been developed. Therefore, negatively charged sweeteners, such as saccharine sodium and acesulfame potassium, were chosen as the target substances in this study. We investigated the responses of various sensor membranes using a lipid and nine kinds of plasticizers to each basic taste sample. Furthermore, not only the selectivity of the membranes but also the concentration dependence of their response to sweeteners was investigated. As a result, one of the developed sensors showed responses of over 20 mV to 5 mM saccharine sodium and 10 mM acesulfame potassium in CPA value measurement (CPA: change in membrane potential caused by adsorption). On the other hand, the sensor also showed nearly zero responses to other basic taste samples. In addition, saltiness was the only interfering taste, and the responses to target substances in relative value measurement were over 140 mV. The developed sweetness sensor had high selectivity and concentration-dependent responses. Hence, we concluded that the sensor is suitable for use as a sweetness sensor for high-potency sweeteners with a negative electric charge. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Yasuura M.,Kyushu University | Tahara Y.,Kyushu University | Ikezaki H.,Intelligent Sensor Technology Inc. | Toko K.,Kyushu University
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2014

Taste evaluation technology has been developed by several methods, such as sensory tests, electronic tongues and a taste sensor based on lipid/polymer membranes. In particular, the taste sensor can individually quantify five basic tastes without multivariate analysis. However, it has proven difficult to develop a sweetness sensor, because sweeteners are classified into three types according to the electric charges in an aqueous solution; that is, no charge, negative charge and positive charge. Using membrane potential measurements, the taste-sensing system needs three types of sensor membrane for each electric charge type of sweetener. Since the commercially available sweetness sensor was only intended for uncharged sweeteners, a sweetness sensor for positively charged high-potency sweeteners such as aspartame was developed in this study. Using a lipid and plasticizers, we fabricated various lipid/polymer membranes for the sweetness sensor to identify the suitable components of the sensor membranes. As a result, one of the developed sensors showed responses of more than 20 mV to 10 mM aspartame and less than 5 mV to any other taste. The responses of the sensor depended on the concentration of aspartame. These results suggested that the developed sweetness sensor had high sensitivity to and high selectivity for aspartame.

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