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Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 748.64K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT: In this project, IFT and its academic partner GMU developed an innovative Harness Enhanced Awareness for Radio Systems (HEARS) framework and technical underpinnings for DSA systems operating under conditions of imperfect knowledge, and used the framework to address challenging problems in satellite communication (SATCOM)DSA. As the logical core of the HEARS, Multi-Entity Bayesian Network (MEBN) models for SATCOM were developed and implemented using Netica Bayesian Network (BN) APIs. The developments bring the power of information fusion, probabilistic inference and reasoning for decision making under uncertainties to SATCOM systems, which allows more reliable in-situ decisions under a broader range of scenarios and avoids performance loss. A SATCOM BN Analysis Tool was developed which integrates SATCOM simulation, BN based decision making and 3D visualization. The Phase I effort provided convincing results of proof-of-concept designs that enable further technology development and transition. In Phase II, our main objectives include: i) extend the core SATCOM MEBN to accommodate more DSA scenarios and applications, ii) fully implement the HEARS framework with hardware-in-loop emulation in a realistic Virtual RF Environment for extensive performance evaluation, design optimization and demonstration, and iii) further advance the technologies towards practical applications such as controlling a L-3 SATCOM Modem for space communication. ; BENEFIT: The proposed HEARS framework for dynamic Spectrum Access under uncertainty conditions has tremendous application potential in many military applications. It can be used for protected SATCOM applications with dynamic spectrum sharing and interference mitigations. In addition, it is applicable to relevant Defense Acquisition Programs within DoD such as PTW Protected Tactical Waveform underdevelopment by DFARR, SSN - space surveillance network, SBSS - the Space Based Space Surveillance system, SBIRS - Space-Based Infrared System program, WGS - Wideband Global SATCOM, JSARS - JSPOC Situational Awareness Response System, DCGS-X - Distributed Common Ground System program (Air Force), DCGS-N -Distributed Common Ground Station-Navy, DCGS-A - DCGS Army system. IFT will work with L3 to focus on marketing the resultant technology to their existing Air Force customers. As the first priority, IFT will leverage existing activities IFT has with several Air Force programs that can quickly take advantage of this highly critical technology. This technology could also benefit deep space exploration and other scientific research activities in space research and development. Other potential commercial applications include management of the civilian networks, such as finance, medicine, communications, electric power, nuclear energy, internet service providers, air traffic control, etc.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.99K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT: Space superiority needs protected tactical space communications with dynamic spectrum sharing, routing adaptation and interference mitigations against kinetic and non kinetic threats. The main focus of this project is to develop game-theoretic analytics and frameworks to support the Air Forces autonomy science & technology strategy (e.g., "deterrence" posture which in turn may be enabled by the attribute of resiliency) against counter space aggression. The Phase I effort has resulted in a SANDGT for persistent and risk-averse space situation awareness. We obtained the promising results to validate our developed approaches. These preliminary yet promising results clearly demonstrate that IFTs SANDGT provides innovative and effective game theoretical approach for persistent space denial. In the phase II project, we will revise, extend, and optimize the Phase I research results for realistic SSA scenarios considering the security issues in embedded satellite networks with Service-Oriented-Architecture (SOA) framework and the operational constraints of space-based visible/radar sensors, LEO/near GEO space platforms, maneuver capabilities, characteristics of orbital planes and space assets per plane on asset observability and reachability. Moreover, IFT team will extend and tie all the models developed in Phase 1 using SOA framework and Observe, Orient, Decide and Act (OODA) decision making paradigm.; BENEFIT: The proposed SANDGT for persistent and risk-averse space situation awareness has tremendous application potential in many military applications. It can be used to defensive counter space mission to protect high value space assets, and protect tactical space communications with dynamic spectrum sharing, routing adaptation and interference mitigations against kinetic and non kinetic threat. The near term DOD application target is the Air Force programs, SSN-space surveillance network, SBSS-the Space Based Space Surveillance system, SBIRS-Space-Based Infrared System program, WGS-Wideband Global SATCOM, JSARS-JSPOC Situational Awareness Response System, DCGS-X-Distributed Common Ground System program (Air Force), and JSTARS-joint surveillance and target attack radar system. Other potential commercial applications include monitoring the civilian networks, such as finance, medicine, communications, electric power, nuclear energy, internet service provider, air traffic control, etc. In addition, police and first responders for NASA, US Coast Guard, Department of Homeland Security, multi-layered sensing, disaster assessment, air traffic control system, the national weather service, physical security systems, law enforcement agency, emergency control center, border and coast patrol, pollution monitoring, remote sensing and global awareness could be a potential application.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 721.89K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT: Threat detection of people, vehicles, and others as well as person-vehicle interactions (dismounts) of possible malicious intent are difficult problems due to the complexity of the problem space. The wide area motion imagery (WAMI) systems aid analysts to track and identify dismounts, but typically produce an overwhelmingly large amount of information. The large scale data input challenges existing situational awareness algorithms in time complexity and storage requirements. The lack of computationally efficient moving target indicator (MTI) analysis tools has become a bottleneck for utilizing WAMI data in urban surveillance. The Phase I effort has resulted in high-performance computing solutions to handle the large scale data requirements. We obtained promising results to validate our developed approaches. These preliminary yet promising results obtained in the Phase I study clearly demonstrate that IFTs HPC-MTT, which use the graphics processing unit, multi-core processor, and Hadoop technology, provides innovative and effective on-board and off-board solutions,. Based on the Phase I design and evaluation of our HPC-MTT tool, we believe that it is time to revise, extend, and optimize the Phase I research results using a massively parallel framework with Service-Oriented-Architecture.; BENEFIT: The proposed high-performance-computing (HPC) enabled multiple-target-tracking (MTT) architecture has tremendous potential for many military applications. The proposed tool can be used to reduce latency to improve E2AT. In C4ISR, the proposed technology can also improve efficiency in the systems that help warfighters process information, such as in the counter-insurgency and counter-IED areas. In addition, there are some relevant Defense Acquisition Programs within DoD, such as Distributed Common Ground Station-Navy (DCGS-N), DCGS-X (Air Force), DCGS Army (DCGS-A) system, and AFRL E2AT and PCPADX. Other potential commercial applications include disaster response, environmental research, combating drug trafficking, air-traffic control, law-enforcement, search and rescue operations and anti-terrorist activity.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT:The proposal presents an Intelligent Image Compression Broker Based on Objective with Feedback. A novel structure is applied to receive the input image/video, its metadata (environment and camera parameters), and the feedback from the compressed image quality evaluation to optimize the tradeoff between the compressed image quality and its size (in terms of bits the compressed image occupied). We also propose to apply machine leaning techniques to train the compression method and parameter selection broker, which also accepts real data as a part of the reference as the image quality and the application requirement match each other. Due to the application of the novel system structure, the image compression broker has the capability to continuously adjust the compression algorithm and parameters, and thus the image compression performance is optimized.BENEFIT:The first near term DOD application targets are the Air Force programs, E2AT- Multi-INT Enhanced Exploitation and Analysis Tools, DCGS-X-Distributed Common Ground System program (Air Force), SSN-space surveillance network, SBSS-the Space Based Space Surveillance system, SBIRS-Space-Based Infrared System program, JSARS-JSPOC Situational Awareness Response System. IFT will focus on marketing the resultant technology to its existing Air Force customers. As the first priority, IFT will leverage existing activities that IFT has with several Air Force programs that can quickly take advantage of this highly critical technology. The second priority is to target the Office of Naval Research Data to Decisions program for automated processing, exploitation, and dissemination (PED) operations, and other related programs where BAE Systems serves as the Prime Contractor. Beyond the E2AT applications, the innovative solutions developed under this program will improve automated PED and decision making for many military applications. IFT and its industry partner will aggressively pursue other applications. As a metric for this task, the technology is also applicable to commercial systems. Our target application will focus on domestic, civic, and humanitarian applications, such as disaster response, environmental research, and law enforcement.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 745.88K | Year: 2014

ABSTRACT: Cyber-attacks are increasing in frequency, impact, and complexity, which demonstrate extensive vulnerabilities of networks with the potential for catastrophic damage. Defending against these cyber-attacks requires network security situation awareness (SA) through distributed collaborative monitoring, detection, and mitigation. In the Phase I project, IFT team has developed a Network Sensor-Based Defense Framework for Active Network Security Situation Awareness and Impact Mitigation. The framework features five elements: distributed network sensors (both passive and active), effective anomaly detectors, cyber-attack scene investigation, game theoretic cyber-attack formalization, and Google Earth based multi-view and multi-layer visualization. The preliminary yet promising results obtained in the Phase I study clearly demonstrate that IFT"s network sensor based defense framework provides innovative and effective SA techniques for active network security and proactive impact mitigation against cyber network attacks. In the Phase II research proposed, we will revise, extend, and optimize the Phase I research results with the focus on enhanced detection techniques, privacy-preserving, insider attack detection, game theoretic intent inference and impact mitigation, trust/assurance of network sensors, system resilience/agility, social-cultural factor modeling, traceback for anonymous attacks, and coordination between passive sensors and active sensors for a holistic cyber assessment testbed to enhance strategic and operational capabilities. BENEFIT: The innovations that we are developing will improve situation awareness, planning, data theft protection, and decision support for many military applications contending with complex malicious network attacks. The first near term DOD application target is the Cyber Warriors program, which is an Air Force stringent need. The second near term DOD application target is Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS) program and other programs where Raytheon-IIS is the Prime Contractor. Raytheon-IIS is prime contractor on the DCGS, Universal Control System (UCS), and next generation GPS control segment (GPS OCX). IFT has developed a strong and realistic plan to transition our technology to Raytheon programs. The cyber technology is also applicable to commercial systems. IFT"s target application will focus on civilian networks, such as finance, medicine, communications, electric power, nuclear energy, Internet service providers, and air traffic control.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 743.00K | Year: 2014

ABSTRACT: In the Phase I effort, IFT proposed a Holistic networking Infrastructure for tactical Satellite Communication Networks (HISCoN). It supports optimal network resource management and cross-layer cooperation that allow satellite communication networks to intelligently accommodate the communication needs of various missions/tasks with diverse traffic characteristics and drastically different QoS requirements. Novel enabling technologies have been developed at the physical layer for RF situation awareness, efficient QoS-aware spectrum allocation, and anti-jamming communication, and at the network layer for QoS-aware routing and scheduling. The Phase I effort has provided convincing results of proof-of-concept designs that enable the development of a holistic integrated system for space-borne communication network technology transition. In Phase II, our goal is twofold: to refine and expand the HISCoN algorithms by addressing a broad scope of issues in practical implementations, and to integrate the proposed technologies and tools for extensive performance evaluation and visual demonstration in realistic mission scenarios. There are three major milestones: 1) implementation and testing of the main components (i.e., the proposed communication/networking algorithms, CR hardware testbed, the co-simulation platform and the 3D simulation/visualization engine); 2) integration of all the components into an operational demonstrator; and 3) simulations of realistic scenarios to obtain desired results. BENEFIT: The proposed RF cartography-enabled cognitive airborne system (RC-CAS) has tremendous potential in many military applications. The cognition infrastructure such as the RF cartography and its application to cognition-enabled tactical wireless networking is a research area critical for national security and battlefield information collection. RC-CAS can also be directly used for developing of advanced mission planning and emergency preparedness decision support systems such as extensions to Net-Enabled Command Capability (NECC), the Space Situational Awareness Fusion Intelligent Research Environment [SAFIRE], JSPOC Situational Awareness Response System (JSARS), JSTARS, and DCGS programs. The technologies developed under our mission-oriented cross-layer analyses and designs will enhance the capabilities of the Objective Force Warrior (OFW) and the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) programs with novel power control, scheduling, routing, mobility management and resource allocation algorithms for communication/networking functions. In addition to the USAF, prime contractors (e.g., Raytheon, Boeing) and DoD partners (e.g. Navy and Army) are also very interested in assisting in the technology transfer. IFT"s research thrusts on RF environment map estimation algorithms will have direct implications to random field estimation tasks for wireless sensor networks in various monitoring applications, such as structural health monitoring for critical national infrastructure, habitat monitoring, homeland security, and remote sensing. Other potential commercial applications include police and first responders for NASA, US Coast Guard, Department of Homeland Security, multi-layered sensing, disaster assessment, air traffic control system, the national weather service, physical security systems, law enforcement agency, emergency control center, border and coast patrol, pollution monitoring, remote sensing and global awareness. Cisco and Hughes Network Systems are also interested in IFT"s routing algorithms. We expect the aggregated market size will be similar to that of military applications.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 80.00K | Year: 2015

This proposal presents a low SWAP spectrum monitoring system covering from 100MHz to 14GHz. The system sensitivity is -120dBm with 1kHz bandwidth. It has a SWAP of 10cm12cm1.5cm, 2lB, and less than 2.8W. It is much smaller than any available USB spectrum analyzer plus a small PC. The system divides the covered frequency band (100MHz ~ 14GHz) into three sub-bands (sub-band I - 100 ~ 800MHz, sub-band II - 0.8 ~ 7GHz, sub-band - III 7 ~ 14GHz) and each sub-band is covered using a set of antennas (three same antennas for DOA estimation) and the following receivers. The two higher frequency sub-band antenna sets are fixed relatively to each other (each set will be on one PCB board) and lower frequency sub-band antennas are installed on ScanEagle wings and fuselage (there may be some errors due to installation and wing shape change in flying, but it is tolerated for the relative large wavelength). The micro-controller will select which sub-band will work and what frequency signal will be collected. At any time, the system only works on one sub-band, and the other two are turned off to save power. The DOA estimation capability is for precise EM signal power measurement.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT: This proposal presents an Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) upgrade scheme using smart antenna and cognitive satellite radio techniques. On the remote tracking station (RTS) side, switched beam smart antenna, distributed beam forming technique, multiple access technique based on FDMA and/or CDMA are applied to obtain multiple satellites reception objective. On the satellite side, smart antenna is applied to the RF interference (RFI) and speed up the antenna mainlobe turning for shortening the lengthy TT&C scheduling; cognitive radio sensing is used on satellite to monitor the RFI and extract the RFI pattern for minimizing RFI in TT&C scheduling. In addition, GPS based ranging technique is applied for satellite localization to alleviate the RTSs satellite tracking work load. We modeled the end to end uplink communication from RTS transmitter to satellite receiver for uplink power and link budget calculation. The RF interferences coming from undesired RTS and 3G/4G personal communication system are modeled separately and then combined for RFI minimization in the TT&C scheduling process. We also proposed long term solutions using phase array antenna, cognitive satellite radio and real time TT&C scheduling techniques. BENEFIT: The proposed techniques (1) to (5) can be directly used for AFSCN TT&C multiple satellites reception and satellite RFI minimization in congested, contested radio spectrum conditions; (6) can be used for any satellite localization/ranging; and, (7) can be used for AFSCN multiple satellites reception in wide angle range with smart antennas on satellites in the future when the PAA cost is lower than the SATOP cost reduction using PAA. The technique (2) can also be applied in Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and RF environment monitoring missions to effectively detect and localize ground radar/satellite-communication-station/jammers for early RF threat warning and indications, such as transition into existing Wideband Global Spectrum Monitoring System (WGSMS) program. It can also be applied on CubeSat or small UAV. When applied on CubeSat, it can be directly used for monitoring the region with A2AD capability; when applied on UAV, it can be used for battlefield monitoring. We already have close connections with DoD and industry communities. The market for military is quite large and IFT has successfully transitioned research prototype for inclusion in DoD contractor research simulations. We also recognize commercial application of this project with the concepts being developed. The proposed system can be directly used for commercial satellite TT&C, and the technique (2) can be applied on small UAS by Department of Homeland Security and US Coast Guard for monitoring county border, or polices for fast response to disaster.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT: In this proposal a Game-theoretic Universal Anti-RFI Defense (GUARD) framework for Satellite Communications is proposed. Key components of the GUARD framework include i) Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI) modeling and impact evaluation infrastructure, which allows the evaluation of the impact of RFI from various sources, and provides a comprehensive RFI knowledge base to SATCOM; ii) RFI sensing and inference infrastructure, which utilizes on-site measurements from supporting sensors and users to identify the location, nature and scope of the RFI, and makes inference about the RFI source (type, location, capacity, etc.) based on the RFI knowledge base; and iii) RFI protection infrastructure, to deal with unintended RFI and jamming, which consists of (a) RFI mitigation capabilities against unintended interference, and (b) a unified framework for the development of jamming/anti-jamming games, which supports comprehensive modeling of SATCOM users and jammer behaviors, as well as the information asymmetry between different players of the game. Based on the game framework, SATCOM jamming/anti-jamming games will be configured and investigated for various scenarios of interest. A conceptual hardware design of a highly adaptive cognitive transceiver is also proposed, which allows highly flexible radio configurations supporting an efficient operation under low SWaP constraints, and hardware in the loop emulation. BENEFIT: The GUARD framework is developed to significantly improve SATCOM system performance in presence of RFI from various sources and of various natures. The proposed GUARD architecture has tremendous applications potential in many military applications. It can be used to protected tactical space communications with dynamic spectrum sharing and interference mitigations. In addition, some relevant Defense Acquisition Programs within DoD are such as WSCE-W/V-band space communications Experiment, PTW MILSATCOM DFARR program, WGS-Wideband Global SATCOM, WIN-T Warfighter Information Network-Tactical, JSTARS Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System Aircraft, JTRS GMR Joint Tactical Radio System Ground Mobile Radio, DCGS-N--Distributed Common Ground Station-Navy, DCGS-X (Air Force), DCGS Army (DCGS-A) system, High Data Rate Airborne Terminal and XG DSA2100, etc. For some of these programs we already have close connections and know considerable program details. The market for military is quite large and IFT has successfully transitioned research prototype for inclusion in DoD contractor research simulations. We can also see commercial application of this project with the numerous concepts being developed. The proposed tool can be used to support commercial applications include disaster management, air traffic control, network defense, the national weather service, physical security systems, law enforcement agencies, emergency control centers, border and coast patrol, pollution monitoring, remote sensing, robotics, medical applications, and global awareness. We have many unique concepts with broad applicability that the market size is hard to estimate. The general tenets of the proposal support all companies, organizations, and products that provide/utilize spectrum access.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 745.78K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT:The space domain today is becoming increasingly congested. The detection, classification, and tracking of Resident Space Objects (RSO) is critical for space situational awareness. How to best utilize available sensing resources becomes extremely important. The Phase I effort has resulted in a high Performance Computing enabled Distributed Game theoretic Sensor Management software Suite (HEADGT) for RSO detection, classification, and tracking. We obtained promising results which clearly demonstrate that IFTs HEADGT software suite provides innovative and effective game theoretic approach for sensor resource management with consideration of various operational constraints. The developed HEADGT integrates space object classification and tracking, heterogeneous sensor measurements fusion, maneuver detection, collision alert, sensor modeling, game theoretic modeling and solution, hardware implementation, and visualization system. In the phase II project, we will refine, extend, and optimize our Phase I system concept and models to meet the realistic requirements of the Air Force for RSO detection, classification and tracking. In addition, IFT team will 1), extend and tie all the models developed in Phase I using high performance computing enabled implementations, 2), enhance the hardware prototype, 3), enrich interfaces with other SSA testbeds such as Space Fence System.BENEFIT:The proposed HEADGTSM toolbox has tremendous application potential in many military applications. It can be used to defensive counter space mission to protect high value space assets, collision avoidance, detection, tracking, classification space objects. In addition, it is applicable to relevant Defense Acquisition Programs within DoD such as Space Fence System, SSN - space surveillance network, SBSS - the Space Based Space Surveillance system, SBIRS - Space-Based Infrared System program, WGS - Wideband Global SATCOM, JSARS - JSPOC Situational Awareness Response System, DCGS-X - Distributed Common Ground System program (Air Force), DCGS-N -Distributed Common Ground Station-Navy, DCGS-A - DCGS Army system. For some of these programs we already have support and know considerable program details. The market for military applications is quite large and IFT has successfully transitioned research prototypes for inclusion in DoD contractor research simulations. This technology could also benefit deep space exploration and other scientific research activities in space research and development. Other potential commercial applications include monitoring the civilian networks, such as finance, medicine, communications, electric power, nuclear energy, internet service provider, air traffic control, etc. In addition, police and first responders for NASA, US Coast Guard, Department of Homeland Security, multi-layered sensing, disaster assessment, the national weather service, physical security systems, law enforcement agency, emergency control center, border and coast patrol, pollution monitoring, remote sensing and global awareness could be a potential application.

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