Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc.

Markham, Canada

Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc.

Markham, Canada

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Zamel N.,University of Waterloo | Litovsky E.,Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc. | Shakhshir S.,University of Waterloo | Li X.,University of Waterloo | Kleiman J.,Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc.
Applied Energy | Year: 2011

Carbon paper is commonly used as the gas diffusion layer (GDL) in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells as it exhibits high chemical and mechanical durability. This diffusion medium is also anisotropic, which directly affects its transport properties and specifically the thermal conductivity. In this study, the in-plane thermal conductivity of the carbon paper GDL was determined using thermal diffusivity measurements for a temperature range from -20 to +120. °C and four Teflon loadings (0, 5, 20 and 50. wt.%). It is important to understand the effect of temperature on the thermal conductivity since PEM fuel cells are designed to operate under various temperatures depending on the application of use. Further, Teflon is used to change the hydrophobic properties of the carbon paper GDL with 20. wt.% as the most widely used percentage. In this study, the Teflon loadings were chosen to gain a comprehensive understanding of the thermal resistance due to Teflon. In this study, a quasi-steady method was used to measure the thermal properties of the carbon paper; hence, the phase transformation in the presence of PTFE was investigated. The thermal conductivity decreases with an increase in temperature for all samples. The addition of as little as 5. wt.% Teflon resulted in high thermal resistance decreasing the overall thermal conductivity of the sample. Further addition of Teflon did not have major effects on the thermal conductivity. For all treated samples, the thermal conductivity lies in the range of 10.1-14.7. W/mK. Finally, empirical relations for the thermal diffusivity and conductivity with temperature were deduced. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Zamel N.,University of Waterloo | Litovsky E.,Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc. | Li X.,University of Waterloo | Kleiman J.,Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

Carbon paper, a fibrous material, is often used as the gas diffusion layer in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, which are being vigorously developed as a zero-emission power source for transportation applications. The temperature field and heat transfer in this material is determined by its thermal conductivity and diffusivity, which are directly dependent on the operating temperature. In this work, we use a quasi-steady method known as the thermal capacitance (slug) method to experimentally measure the through-plane thermal conductivity of TORAY carbon paper for a temperature range from -50 to +120 °C. The effects of compression and PTFE loading on the overall thermal conductivity are also investigated. Compression leads to a decrease in thermal resistance between the carbon fibers; hence, an increase in the overall thermal conductivity. However, it is also found that this thermal resistance is highly dependent on the temperature and the PTFE loading. In contrast with our in-plane thermal conductivity measurements from a previous study, the through-plane thermal conductivity is found to increase with an increase in temperature in this study. This finding suggests that the thermal expansion of the carbon fibers is a direction dependent quantity. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Litovsky E.,Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc. | Kleiman J.I.,Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc. | Shagalov M.,Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc. | Heimann R.B.,Am Stadtpark 2A
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2014

A novel method has been developed to measure the apparent thermal conductivity of thin coatings based on measuring the heat flux through the coatings as well as the external heat transfer coefficient of an uncoated sample using a modified slug calorimeter configuration. The method was tested on cold gas dynamically sprayed alumina-reinforced aluminum coatings deposited on Al 7075 alloy substrates, and verified by a standard steady-state method. The very low apparent thermal conductivities measured between - 150. °C and +. 200. °C have been attributed to the presence of numerous splat boundaries, pores and microcracks the width of which changes in response to temperature gradients and hence differential thermal expansion coefficients. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Litovsky E.,Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc. | Issoupov V.,Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc. | Kleiman J.I.,Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc.
Fire and Materials | Year: 2016

The ASTM Standard Test Method E2584 'Standard Practice for Thermal Conductivity of Materials Using a Thermal Capacitance (Slug) Calorimeter' was developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology to measure thermal conductivity of fire-resistive and reactive materials during monotonic heating and cooling. The heating regime adopted in ASTM E2584 is very reasonable because change of materials' composition and structure during a fire can depend on kinetic factors and thermal story of the materials. The main problem in experimental measurements of thermophysical properties is the impossibility of using standard steady-state methods during time-dependent processes in materials accompanied by latent heat effect. Using standard transient methods, such as hot wire or laser flash methods, is also incorrect, because the transient measurement heat process can be started only after steady-state temperature field is established in the sample, that is, at the time when the involved physical or chemical processes could be finished. The objectives of this paper are to review and to analyze scientific problems to be taken into account in the revised version of ASTM E2584 Standard. Examples of experimental results are presented for measurement of thermophysical properties during chemical and physical processes in solid materials, powders, metals, and ceramic materials; building materials during fire; and so on. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Kleiman J.,Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc. | Horodetsky S.,Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc. | Issoupov V.,Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc.
European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP | Year: 2013

In a multi-year program funded by Canadian Space Agency, ITL Inc. developed and manufactured a Planetary Environmental Simulator Facility. The facility includes a number of environmental sources, including dust particles, UV radiation, temperature and darkness, to simulate the planetary environments. The major blocks of the facility were tested and demonstrated acceptable performance. A number of long duration tests were conducted with mechanical subsystems that included bearings of different sizes. The results had shown that the dust particles can induce damage to the moving parts, causing deterioration in the performance. Based on experiments with the originally designed dust source, modifications into its design were made and a new type of source was introduced to widen the capabilities of the simulator and the interaction conditions between the lunar simulant and the tested materials/systems. To extend the capabilities of the lunar simulator and to allow for creation of more realistic lunar environment conditions, a 50 keV proton source was also designed and is being built to simulate the solar wind effects on dust charging. Copyright © 2013 European Space Agency.


Yakubtsov I.A.,McMaster University | Yakubtsov I.A.,Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc. | Purdy G.R.,McMaster University
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science | Year: 2012

The isothermal transformation kinetics of austenite decomposition in Fe-0.4C-2.78Mn-1.81Si was analyzed by an electrical resistivity technique in the temperature interval 723 K to 418 K (450 °C to 145 °C). The analysis of transformation kinetics of the bainite transformation was performed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolgomorov (JMAK) and Austin-Rickett (AR) approaches. The kinetic parameters, the reaction constant n, rate constant k = k(T), and apparent activation energy Q were evaluated for isothermal transformations below and above the martensite-start temperature M S = 548 K (275 °C), which was determined experimentally. The formation of strain-induced martensite, which starts to accompany the bainite transformation at just above M S, increases the rate of transformation and decreases the apparent activation energy of austenite decomposition. © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2011.


Kleiman J.,Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc. | Horodetsky S.,Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc. | Issoupov V.,Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc.
European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP | Year: 2012

Under a 2-year program funded by the Canadian Space Agency, ITL Inc. has developed a Planetary Environmental Simulator/Test Facility. The basic dust particles' source includes a lunar/Martian soil simulant container and a funnel-like enclosure in which the dust cloud is generated and designed to confine the dust and prevent it from spreading all over the chamber. The dust is activated by a paddle actuator located inside the source, allowing generating dust clouds of different intensity and configuration. A multi-stage evolutionary path of the facility is outlined with the aim to create an advanced test facility that will be used to support the design, testing, and validation of Canadian space robotic hardware.


Patent
MacDonald, Dettwiler, Associates and Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc. | Date: 2013-07-03

A method of making a charge dissipative surface of a dielectric polymeric material with tunable (selectable) surface resistivity, comprises the step of controllably carbonizing the surface of the polymeric material in a vacuum environment by bombarding the polymeric surface with an ion beam of rare gas ions, the energy level of the ion source being from 2.5 to 30 keV, in the fluence range 1E16-5E17 ion/cm^(2 )so as to reach a surface resistivity in the static dissipative range of 1E6 to 1E9 ohm/square at room temperature, with a temperature dependence of less than three orders of magnitude between 150 C. and +150 C., while having no impact on the RF performance of the material, with high RF power handling capability, and with tunable thermo-optical properties of the surface, including negligible impact on the thermo-optical properties and RF performance of the material, if required by applications.


Patent
Airbus and Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc. | Date: 2016-05-20

A method of manufacturing a charge dissipative surface layer on a member made from or consisting of a dielectric polymeric material or polymer-based composite which is intended to be used in space and other extreme environments, the member having at least one surface, in particular two opposing surfaces, each of the surfaces having a flat or a three-dimensional shape. The method includes carbonizing the at least one surface of the member in a vacuum environment through ion bombardment with simultaneous surface renewal in a dynamic way, by bombardment of the at least one surface with an ion beam formed in a gaseous linear high-current technological ion beam source of rare gas and added predetermined amount of a carbonaceous gas in the same ion beam gas admixture in order to achieve a treated carbonized surface layer with a uniform surface resistivity in a charge-dissipative range.


Patent
Airbus and Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc. | Date: 2015-05-27

The invention relates to a method of manufacturing a charge dissipative surface layer on a member made from or consisting of a dielectric polymeric material or polymer-based composite which is intended to be used in space and other extreme environments, the member having at least one surface, in particular two opposing surfaces, each of the surfaces having a flat or a three-dimensional shape. The method comprises the steps of carbonizing the at least one surface of the member in a vacuum environment through ion bombardment with simultaneous surface renewal in a dynamic way, by bombardment of the at least one surface with an ion beam formed in a gaseous linear high-current technological ion beam source of rare gas and added predetermined amount of a carbonaceous gas in the same ion beam gas admixture in order to achieve a treated carbonized surface layer with a uniform surface resistivity in a charge-dissipative range.

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