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King F.,Integrity Corrosion Consulting
Corrosion | Year: 2013

A wide range of alloys have been considered as candidate container materials for the storage and disposal of nuclear waste. The goal of the majority of national nuclear waste management programs is the ultimate disposal of the waste, although, depending upon the strategy being followed, disposal may come only after an extended period of storage. The management strategy depends on the nature of the waste, with intermediate level waste (ILW) generally being stored for a longer period before disposal than is the case for higher activity wastes, such as high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing activities or spent fuel (SF). This review describes the corrosion issues associated with the storage and disposal of both ILW and HLW/SF. Various factors enter into the decision of which material to select for the container, of which the corrosion behavior in the expected service environment is only one. The corrosion behavior of the container material(s) is closely tied to the nature of the environment to which the containers will be exposed and how that environment changes with time. A general discussion of the corrosion behavior of the materials selected or proposed as container materials is provided, and the specific corrosion issues associated with each class of material highlighted. The classes of material considered for the storage and/or disposal of ILW and HLW/SF include copper, carbon steel and cast iron, stainless steels, titanium alloys, and nickel-based alloys. © 2013, NACE International. Source


King F.,Integrity Corrosion Consulting | Padovani C.,Campus Management
Corrosion Engineering Science and Technology | Year: 2011

A review of the corrosion performance of selected canister materials for the disposal of high activity waste in the UK is presented. The canister materials considered are carbon steel, copper, stainless steels, titanium alloys and nickel alloys. The purpose of the review is to provide a high level overview of the technical and scientific issues relating to the use of each of these materials for the disposal of high level waste and spent nuclear fuel in the UK. The advantages and disadvantages of each material are described, as are limiting or 'critical' conditions for which the use of a given material is questionable or not recommended. © 2011 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining. Source


King F.,Integrity Corrosion Consulting | Lilja C.,Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company
Corrosion Engineering Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company has developed a method for safely disposing spent nuclear fuel, which involves encapsulation of the waste in copper canisters and burying it deep in the stable crystalline rock of the Fenno-Scandian shield. The design life of the canisters in the so called KBS-3 design is in excess of 100 000 years. These long canister lifetimes are a consequence of a number of factors involving the properties of the material and the nature of the near field environment in the KBS-3 repository. One of these factors, namely the thermodynamic stability of copper in O2 free water in the absence of sulphide, has been questioned. This paper critically reviews the evidence for and against the claim that water oxidises copper, and discusses the implications for canister lifetimes even if the proposed mechanism is correct. Even though the evidence presented in support of the proposed mechanism is not compelling, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is actively engaged in ongoing research and development on the topic. © 2011 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining. Source


King F.,Integrity Corrosion Consulting | Kolar M.,LS Computing Ltd | Vahanen M.,Posiva Oy | Lilja C.,Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company
Corrosion Engineering Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The well known KBS-3 repository design involves the disposal of spent fuel in copper canisters in a deep geological repository sealed with clay based buffer and backfill materials. A onedimensional reactive transport model has been developed to predict the evolution of the general corrosion behaviour of the copper canisters by the initially trapped O2 and by sulphide ions. Various sources of sulphide are considered, including the microbial reduction of sulphate, the dissolution of pyrite impurities and the ground water itself. The model has been used to simulate the evolution of the canister corrosion behaviour for various scenarios, including both the Olkiluoto and Forsmark proposed repository locations, the vertical and horizontal KBS-3 design variants, increased ground water sulphide or chloride concentrations, different microbial scenarios, different rates of repository saturation, and with and without the dissolution of pyrite. Following a brief description of the model, the results of these and other simulations are described. © 2011 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining. Source


King F.,Integrity Corrosion Consulting | Kolar M.,LS Computing Ltd | Keech P.G.,Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Canada
Corrosion Engineering Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Carbon steel is a candidate container material for the disposal of used fuel in a deep geological repository in sedimentary host rock in Canada. Prediction of the long term anaerobic corrosion behaviour of the container is important, not only because it partly determines the container lifetime but also because the products of the corrosion reaction, Fe(II) and H2, can impact the properties of the clay based sealing materials and host rock. A mechanistically based numerical model is described that predicts both the long term corrosion rate and the effects on the repository environment, including the periodic build-up and release of H2, the precipitation of Fe3O4within the bentonite buffer, and the alteration of montmorillonite to a non-swelling clay. The results of a reference simulation for a repository in shale host rock are described. © 2014 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining. Source

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