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Integrity Applications Incorporated

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Chantilly, VA, United States
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McKnight D.S.,Integrity Applications Incorporated
Acta Astronautica | Year: 2016

Since the dawning of the space age space operators have been tallying spacecraft anomalies and failures then using these insights to improve the space systems and operations. As space systems improved and their lifetimes increased, the anomaly and failure modes have multiplied. Primary triggers for space anomalies and failures include design issues, space environmental effects, and satellite operations. Attempts to correlate anomalies to the orbital debris environment have started as early as the mid-1990's. Early attempts showed tens of anomalies correlated well to altitudes where the cataloged debris population was the highest. However, due to the complexity of tracing debris impacts to mission anomalies, these analyses were found to be insufficient to prove causation. After the fragmentation of the Chinese Feng-Yun satellite in 2007, it was hypothesized that the nontrackable fragments causing anomalies in LEO would have increased significantly from this event. As a result, debris-induced anomalies should have gone up measurably in the vicinity of this breakup. Again, the analysis provided some subtle evidence of debris-induced anomalies but it was not convincing. The continued difficulty in linking debris flux to satellite anomalies and failures prompted the creation of a series of spacecraft anomalies and failure workshops to investigate the identified shortfalls. These gatherings have produced insights into why this process is not straightforward. Summaries of these studies and workshops are presented and observations made about how to create solutions for anomaly attribution, especially as it relates to debris-induced spacecraft anomalies and failures. © 2015, Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cook K.L.B.,Integrity Applications Incorporated
IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine | Year: 2010

The military satellite communications (MILSATCOM) infrastructure is typically broken into three categories: wideband, protected, and narrowband. Wideband systems emphasize high capacity, protected systems prioritize anti-jam features and covertness, and narrowband systems emphasize support to the disadvantaged user by providing low data rate communications to small / mobile users. This focuses on the existing wideband MILSATCOM infrastructure (namely the Defense Satellite Communications System and Global Broadcast Service), because the architecture that exists is aging technology that lacks the ability to provide the required bandwidth to the warfighters without relying on commercial satellites. Bandwidth is limited and expensive to purchase, resulting in the DoD leasing transponders on commercial communications satellites - a solution that may not always be an option. This also illustrates various technologies and future programs currently being investigated by the Department of Defense (DoD) in order to augment and/or replace existing systems, and the resulting capability and benefits provided to the warfighter. These programs include the Wideband Global SATCOM (WGS) (previously known as Wideband Gapflller Satellite System), and the Advanced Wideband System (AWS) / Transformational Satellite Communications System (TSAT). Both WGS and AWSITSAT will significantly increase the bandwidth capacity of the wideband MILSATCOM architecture. These military initiatives take advantage of nascent technology such as IP router technology and laser cross-links to maximize performance. Finally, thia describes several techniques to augment these MILSATCOM programs and increase their capacity and effectiveness, including: use of a network-style approach (vice point-to-point), combining space and terrestrial systems, use of near-space communication platforms (e.g., high-altitude. UAVs or balloons), operating at higher frequencies, use of multiple satellites and re-use frequencies, and use of IP accelerators. These techniques increase the bandwidth capacity and improve its effectiveness by providing diversity, better quality of service via multiple relays, improved link performance via network architecture, and increase the amount of effective bandwidth available by including airborne platforms as additional communications relays. © 2010 IEEE.


Kreucher C.,Integrity Applications Incorporated
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine | Year: 2011

This paper describes a statistical signal-processing method for exploiting narrowband bistatic RF measurements to detect and track moving people (hereafter referred to as "dismounts"). In our approach, RF measurements are made by a constellation of narrowband radar units, arranged around a surveillance region. There are several benefits of narrowband radar in this application, which we describe in the paper. However, the narrow bandwidth means that individual measurements only yield coarse information about target state. We show that by fusing measurements from multiple bistatic sensors over time with a Bayesian nonlinear-filtering algorithm, we can effectively estimate dismount position and velocity using as little as 5-10 m bistatic range resolution. We illustrate the algorithm's efficacy with an experiment where a moving person is detected and tracked from a constellation of four narrowband bistatic sensors.


Kreucher C.,Integrity Applications Incorporated | Shapo B.,Integrity Applications Incorporated
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering | Year: 2011

This paper describes a Bayesian approach to detecting and tracking multiple moving targets using acoustic data from multiple passive arrays. We describe a surveillance application, where a collection of fixed-location passive acoustic arrays is charged with monitoring a predefined spatial region. Our approach combines a unique hybrid discrete-grid/particle approximation to the posterior with a dynamic density factorization. This results in a novel 2-D (X/Y) multisensor multitarget tracker that uses bearing measurements only. The efficacy of the algorithm is illustrated both in simulation and on collected at-sea data. © 2011 IEEE.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 742.03K | Year: 2010

This proposal focuses on developing innovative algorithms which exploit a constellation of narrowband RF sensors to detect IED placement activities. The algorithms include techniques for (i) detecting, localizing, and analyzing behavior of vehicles, (ii) imaging to determine if an area has been disturbed, and (iii) optimally locating sensors to enable items (i) and (ii). In Phase I, we developed a suite of baseline algorithms. These included an new nonlinear filtering approach to detection and localization and a novel CRB method of optimal sensor placement. The algorithms were illustrated in simulations involving both sensor placement and target tracking. In Phase II, we propose to refine and extend the algorithms from Phase I, develop additional algorithms, and evaluate the system on real data. Refinements include improved modeling and characterization of urban phenomena and modeling enhancements. Additional algorithms include development of kinematic profiling and compressed sensing coherent change detection. Real data will be used to validate the algorithms. The success of the Phase I algorithms warrants continued R&D in Phase II. The expected result of the Phase II effort is a software prototype for automated selection of sensor placement, detection and tracking of vehicles, kinematic profiling, and CCD imaging. BENEFIT: At the completion of this effort, the proposed technologies will provide an algorithm suite for automatic target detection, kinematic classification, high-resolution imaging, and tracking. These algorithms apply in many commercial applications, including border protection, airport security, and even traffic analysis. In particular, DHS, the FAA, and other agencies routinely need to secure a border or perimeter and analyze all traffic passing through. Furthermore, policing applications often require certain hot-spots to be intensely monitored, particularly in situations poorly equipped for traditional EO techniques (e.g., nighttime and poor weather conditions). IAI and MTRI have engaged AKELA, a leading manufacturer of RF hardware both for commercial and military applications, as a potential vendor for the first product from this technology. No funding for AKELA is costed into the Phase II effort. However, discussions and meetings for transition planning are included. The first product would incorporate the algorithms developed here and narrowband hardware for an intrusion monitoring system that could be sold to police departments, the FAA, and commercial entities requiring perimeter control.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 736.20K | Year: 2010

This effort’s objective is developing algorithms that detect, isolate, and track individual scatterer returns in target clutter. The innovative signal processing algorithms proposed include novel tracking approaches, furthering a phase-sensitive range-compression method that provides sub-wavelength spatial resolution, exploiting the separation provided by Doppler processing for tracking separate scatterers, and advancing statistical analyses for sidelobe rejection and a better understanding of system sensitivities. This work will address four technical areas. A brief description of each follows. (1) We will build on existing algorithms that isolate, detect, and track individual scatterers. This involves methods for estimating scatterer amplitude densities online, refining track termination models, and modeling scatterer phase. (2) We will improve our phase-sensitive method for scatterer tracking that provides sub-wavelength accuracy. We will investigate methods for reducing or eliminating discrete errors that characterize this method. (3) We will exploit the signal separation offered by Doppler processing. While range compression offers some signal isolation due to the different ranges of individual scatterers, Doppler offers much more scatterer separation. (4) We will perform advanced statistical analyses, further isolating returns from individual scatterers via a sidelobe rejection method, describing the efficacy of the scatterer tracking process for target shape estimation. BENEFIT: At the completion of this effort, the proposed technologies will provide an algorithm suite for estimation of target size, shape, and motion. The algorithms apply in many commercial applications, including border protection, airport security, traffic analysis, and commercial security. In particular, DHS, the FAA, other government agencies, and commercial entities routinely need to analyze all traffic passing through a particular area. Furthermore, policing applications often require certain hot-spots to be intensely monitored for identifying unauthorized traffic, particularly in situations poorly equipped for traditional EO techniques (e.g., nighttime and poor weather conditions).


Patent
Integrity Applications Incorporated | Date: 2011-01-24

In some embodiments, the present invention relates to methods or suppressing edge ringing in images. For example, in some embodiments a method of processing an image to suppress ringing and broadened edges induced by image correction processing, includes high-pass filtering a first image to obtain a second image, processing said second image including applying non-linear apodization to said second image to obtain a third image, low-pass filtering said first image to obtain a fourth image, and combining the third image and the fourth image to obtain an output image, wherein the output image is characterized by having reduced edge-response sidelobes as compared to the first images. In some embodiments, the present invention relates to devices comprising means and/or modules to suppress edge ringing in images.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 79.98K | Year: 2011

The Navy relies on airborne Electro-Optical / Infrared (EOIR) ISR platforms for detecting, classifying, and identifying targets and threats. For a given range to target, large apertures yield higher resolution and small apertures yield lower resolution. The downside is that large apertures are costly, heavy, and less aerodynamic. Integrity Applications Incorporated (IAI) proposes to investigate and demonstrate an airborne tactical design that delivers resolution greater than four times the size of the imaging aperture. This design is based on a revolutionary capability recently demonstrated and submitted for a patent by IAI. The design is superior to others because it is less complex, delivers a larger field of view, and derives MOCOMP data directly from the collected imagery data. In the proposed effort, we will develop and demonstrate a visible waveband, compact synthetic aperture imaging system. We will modify our current demonstration system to have flight-like geometry, demonstrate utility on complex targets and scenes, determine the limitations beyond four times the traditional resolution, and deliver a report that investigates retrofitting our system into common Navy Airborne tactical imaging systems. This will allow Navy airborne platforms to deliver robust intelligence products while maintaining safe and covert stand-off distances.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 79.94K | Year: 2011

The Navy is responsible for providing maritime security from terrorist and rogue state actors. As technology progresses, these threats obtain increasingly powerful weapons that may be concealed in smaller packages. The Navy relies heavily on EOIR sensors mounted on airborne tactical platforms to detect, identify, and classify these threats. The challenging tactical environment faced by these sensors includes platform vibration and altitude and airflow-induced temperature gradients which produces large time-varying optical alignment errors. Furthermore, tactical system manufacturing is subject to high-tempo production schedules and cost constraints which do not allow the use of exotic materials or lengthy alignment procedures. For these reasons, current airborne tactical systems have significantly reduced information content. A cost effective solution is to monitor these wavefront errors for feedback and compensation in order to improve information content. This requires a large-amplitude extended-scene wavefront sensor (WFS) with no active beacon to maintain covert capability. Integrity Applications Incorporated proposes to investigate and demonstrate an extended-scene large amplitude, variable strength, EOIR WFS capable of tactical operation. This sensor will be a key component in the solution that restores the degraded resolution of EOIR tactical systems. This will enable identification, detection and classification of smaller objects from larger standoff distances.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 592.30K | Year: 2012

The Navy relies on airborne Electro-Optical / Infrared (EOIR) ISR platforms for detecting, classifying, and identifying targets and threats. For a given range to target, large apertures yield higher resolution and small apertures yield lower resolution. The downside is that large apertures are costly, heavy, and less aerodynamic. Integrity Applications Incorporated (IAI) proposes to investigate and demonstrate an airborne tactical design that delivers resolution greater than four times the size of the imaging aperture. This design is based on a revolutionary capability recently demonstrated and submitted for a patent by IAI. The design is superior to others because it is less complex, delivers a larger field of view, and derives MOCOMP data directly from the collected imagery data. In the proposed effort, we will develop and demonstrate a visible waveband, compact synthetic aperture imaging system. We will modify our current demonstration system to have flight-like geometry, demonstrate utility on complex targets and scenes, determine the limitations beyond four times the traditional resolution, and deliver a report that investigates retrofitting our system into common Navy Airborne tactical imaging systems. This will allow Navy airborne platforms to deliver robust intelligence products while maintaining safe and covert stand-off distances.

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