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Healy J.M.,Natural Environments Program | Healy J.M.,Integrative Research Center Invertebrates | Mikkelsen P.M.,Paleontological Research Institution | Mikkelsen P.M.,Cornell University | Bieler R.,Integrative Research Center Invertebrates
Acta Zoologica | Year: 2015

Spermatogenic ultrastructure in the marine bivalve mollusc Myochama anomioides (Myochamidae) is described and contrasted with other bivalves, especially other euheterodonts. Small (0.1 μm diameter), primary proacrosomal vesicles produced in spermatocytes give rise to much larger (0.4 μm diameter) secondary proacrosomal vesicles in early spermatids, which in turn form the dished-shaped, definitive acrosomal vesicle (diameter 1.0 μm) of later spermatids. The acrosomal vesicle acquires a deposit of subacrosomal material and comes to lie close to or in contact with the plasma membrane. The acrosomal complex (acrosomal vesicle + subacrosomal material) initially positions itself at the apex of the condensing, fibrous nucleus (the so-called temporary acrosome position), but subsequently begins to move posteriorly. The condensing nucleus becomes markedly folded so that its apex is posteriorly orientated towards the migrating acrosomal complex and the midpiece (mitochondria and centrioles). The close spatial relationship of nuclear apex to acrosomal complex during this folding strongly suggests that acrosomal migration in M. anomioides is assisted, at least in part, by movement of the late spermatid nucleus. Similar nuclear folding has previously been demonstrated in an early stage of fertilization in another anomalodesmatan (Laternula limicola) raising the possibility that one event might be a reversal of the other. © 2015 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Source

Healy J.M.,Natural Environments Program | Healy J.M.,Integrative Research Center Invertebrates | Mikkelsen P.M.,Cornell University | Bieler R.,Integrative Research Center Invertebrates
Invertebrate Biology | Year: 2015

Sperm ultrastructural features of the honeycomb (foam) oysters Hyotissa hyotis, H. sinensis, and H. mcgintyi (Gryphaeidae) are described and compared with other Ostreoidea and more generally with other pteriomorphian Bivalvia. Spermatozoa of H. sinensis and H. mcgintyi (the type species of Parahyotissa Harry 1985) exhibit (1) a broad, low-conical acrosomal vesicle; (2) subacrosomal material (very electron-dense granular material and an almost electron-lucent axial rod); (3) a spheroidal nucleus with a wide anterior invagination (filled with subacrosomal components); (4) a midpiece composed of four spherical mitochondria surrounding a pair of centrioles (rootlet associated with proximal centriole); and (5) a flagellum. Sperm of Hyotissa hyotis (type species of Hyotissa Stenzel 1971) differ markedly from those of H. sinensis and H. mcgintyi, in having (1) a conical acrosomal vesicle showing coarse granular texture anteriorly; (2) a very electron-dense axial rod; (3) a barrel-shaped nucleus with a long, narrow anterior invagination (filled with both subacrosomal components) and a basal invagination partly housing the proximal centriole; and (4) five midpiece mitochondria and no proximal centriolar rootlet. Results indicate that H. sinensis should be relocated to another genus, possibly a revised genus Parahyotissa, and also show that the sperm of H. sinensis and H. mcgintyi show many similarities to those of the Ostreidae, with the exception that the 'axial rod' component of the subacrosomal material is less electron-dense than the surrounding substance (more dense in Ostreidae, as in H. hyotis). No family defining sperm features of the Gryphaeidae can be identified. © 2015, The American Microscopical Society, Inc. Source

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