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Johnson M.D.,Physiological Genomics and Medicine Group | Johnson M.D.,Imperial College London | Mueller M.,Physiological Genomics and Medicine Group | Mueller M.,Imperial College London | And 23 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2014

Epigenetic marks such as cytosine methylation are important determinants of cellular and whole-body phenotypes. However, the extent of, and reasons for inter-individual differences in cytosine methylation, and their association with phenotypic variation are poorly characterised. Here we present the first genome-wide study of cytosine methylation at single-nucleotide resolution in an animal model of human disease. We used whole-genome bisulfite sequencing in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), a model of cardiovascular disease, and the Brown Norway (BN) control strain, to define the genetic architecture of cytosine methylation in the mammalian heart and to test for association between methylation and pathophysiological phenotypes. Analysis of 10.6 million CpG dinucleotides identified 77,088 CpGs that were differentially methylated between the strains. In F1 hybrids we found 38,152 CpGs showing allele-specific methylation and 145 regions with parent-of-origin effects on methylation. Cis-linkage explained almost 60% of inter-strain variation in methylation at a subset of loci tested for linkage in a panel of recombinant inbred (RI) strains. Methylation analysis in isolated cardiomyocytes showed that in the majority of cases methylation differences in cardiomyocytes and non-cardiomyocytes were strain-dependent, confirming a strong genetic component for cytosine methylation. We observed preferential nucleotide usage associated with increased and decreased methylation that is remarkably conserved across species, suggesting a common mechanism for germline control of inter-individual variation in CpG methylation. In the RI strain panel, we found significant correlation of CpG methylation and levels of serum chromogranin B (CgB), a proposed biomarker of heart failure, which is evidence for a link between germline DNA sequence variation, CpG methylation differences and pathophysiological phenotypes in the SHR strain. Together, these results will stimulate further investigation of the molecular basis of locally regulated variation in CpG methylation and provide a starting point for understanding the relationship between the genetic control of CpG methylation and disease phenotypes. © 2014 Johnson et al.

Morrissey C.,Imperial College London | Grieve I.C.,Imperial College London | Heinig M.,Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine | Atanur S.,Imperial College London | And 5 more authors.
Physiological Genomics | Year: 2011

The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a widely used rodent model of hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Previously we identified thousands of cisregulated expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) across multiple tissues using a panel of rat recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from Brown Norway and SHR progenitors. These cis-eQTLs represent potential susceptibility loci underlying physiological and pathophysiological traits manifested in SHR. We have prioritized 60 ciseQTLs and confirmed differential expression between the parental strains by quantitative PCR in 43 (72%) of the eQTL transcripts. Quantitative trait transcript (QTT) analysis in the RI strains showed highly significant correlation between cis-eQTL transcript abundance and clinically relevant traits such as systolic blood pressure and blood glucose, with the physical location of a subset of the cis-eQTLs colocalizing with "physiological" QTLs (pQTLs) for these same traits. These colocalizing correlated cis-eQTLs (c3-eQTLs) are highly attractive as primary susceptibility loci for the colocalizing pQTLs. Furthermore, sequence analysis of the c3-eQTL genes identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are predicted to affect transcription factor binding affinity, splicing and protein function. These SNPs, which potentially alter transcript abundance and stability, represent strong candidate factors underlying not just eQTL expression phenotypes, but also the correlated metabolic and physiological traits. In conclusion, by integration of genomic sequence, eQTL and QTT datasets we have identified several genes that are strong positional candidates for pathophysiological traits observed in the SHR strain. These findings provide a basis for the functional testing and ultimate elucidation of the molecular basis of these metabolic and cardiovascular phenotypes. © 2011 the American Physiological Society.

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