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Liarte S.,University of Murcia | Ubero-Pascal N.,University of Murcia | Garcia-Ayala A.,University of Murcia | Puig M.-A.,Integrative Freshwater Ecology Group
Toxicon | Year: 2014

The ability of microcystins (MCs), the main group of cyanotoxins, to affect the physiological processes and tissues of insects has received little attention. Fresh water dissolved MCs represent one of the main sources of cyanotoxins. In the experiment described herein, captured wild mayfly Ecdyonurus angelieri Thomas, 1968 larvae were exposed to 5 ppb of two distinct microcystins, MC-LR and MC-LW, in separate assays. Evidence of induced mortality, MCs bioaccumulation and severe histological damage affecting fat body and alterations in the tracheal system were evident. Our results reveal the acute sensitivity of the mayfly E. angelieri to MCS, which may serve as early indicators or cyanotoxins production and the quality of freshwater streams. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Peipoch M.,Integrative Freshwater Ecology Group | Gacia E.,Integrative Freshwater Ecology Group | Blesa A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Ribot M.,Integrative Freshwater Ecology Group | And 2 more authors.
Aquatic Sciences | Year: 2014

We examined the relevance of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) forms (nitrate and ammonium) in stream water as N sources for different macrophyte species. To do this, we investigated the variability and relationships between 15N natural abundance of DIN forms and of four different macrophyte species in five different streams influenced by inputs from wastewater treatment plants and over time within one of these streams. Results showed that 15N signatures were similar in species of submersed and amphibious macrophytes and in stream water DIN, whereas 15N signatures of the riparian species were not. 15N signatures of macrophytes were generally closer to 15N signatures of nitrate, regardless of the species considered. Our results showed significant relationships between 15N signatures of DIN and those of submersed Callitriche stagnalis and amphibious Veronica beccabunga and Apium nodiflorum, suggesting stream water DIN as a relevant N source for these two functional groups. Moreover, results from a mixing model suggested that stream water DIN taken up by the submersed and amphibious species was mostly in the form of nitrate. Together, these results suggest different contribution to in-stream N uptake among the spatially-segregated species of macrophytes. While submersed and amphibious species can contribute to in-stream N uptake by assimilation of DIN, macrophyte species located at stream channel edges do not seem to rely on stream water DIN as an N source. Ultimately, these results add a functional dimension to the current use of macrophytes for the restoration of stream channel morphology, indicating that they can also contribute to reduce excess DIN in streams. © 2013 Springer Basel. Source

Llorens-Mares T.,Integrative Freshwater Ecology Group | Triado-Margarit X.,Integrative Freshwater Ecology Group | Borrego C.M.,Catalan Institute for Water Research | Borrego C.M.,University of Girona | And 2 more authors.
Microbial Ecology | Year: 2015

Microbial communities growing under extreme low redox conditions are present in anoxic and sulfide-rich (euxinic) environments such as karstic lakes and experience limitation of electron acceptors. The fine natural chemical gradients and the large diversity of organic and inorganic compounds accumulated in bottom waters are impossible to mimic under laboratory conditions, and only a few groups have been cultured. We investigated the bacterial composition in the oxic-anoxic interface and in the deep waters of three sulfurous lakes from the Lake Banyoles karstic area (NE Spain) through 16S rRNA gene tag sequencing and identified the closest GenBank counterpart. High diversity indices were found in most of the samples with >15 phyla/classes and >45 bacterial orders. A higher proportion of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of the “highest novelty” was found in the hypolimnia (38 % of total sequences) than in the metalimnia (17 %), whereas the percentage of OTUs closer to cultured counterparts (i.e., 97 % identity in the 16S rRNA gene) was 6 to 21 %, respectively. Elusimicrobia, Chloroflexi, Fibrobacteres, and Spirochaetes were the taxa with the highest proportion of novel sequences. Interestingly, tag sequencing results comparison with metagenomics data available from the same dataset, showed a systematic underestimation of sulfur-oxidizing Epsilonproteobacteria with the currently available 907R “universal” primer. Overall, despite the limitation of electron acceptors, a highly diverse and novel assemblage was present in dark and euxinic hypolimnetic freshwaters, unveiling a hotspot of microbial diversity with a remarkable gap with cultured counterparts. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York Source

A natural planktonic bloom of a brown-pigmented photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria (GSB) from the disphotic zone of karstic Lake Banyoles (NE Spain) was studied as a natural enrichment culture from which a nearly complete genome was obtained after metagenomic assembly. We showed in situ a case where horizontal gene transfer (HGT) explained the ecological success of a natural population unveiling ecosystem-specific adaptations. The uncultured brown-pigmented GSB was 99.7% identical in the 16S rRNA gene sequence to its green-pigmented cultured counterpart Chlorobium luteolum DSM 273T. Several differences were detected for ferrous iron acquisition potential, ATP synthesis and gas vesicle formation, although the most striking trait was related to pigment biosynthesis strategy. Chl. luteolum DSM 273T synthesizes bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c, whereas Chl. luteolum CIII incorporated by HGT a 18-kbp cluster with the genes needed for BChl e and specific carotenoids biosynthesis that provided ecophysiological advantages to successfully colonize the dimly lit waters. We also genomically characterized what we believe to be the first described GSB phage, which based on the metagenomic coverage was likely in an active state of lytic infection. Overall, we observed spread HGT and we unveiled clear evidence for virus-mediated HGT in a natural population of photosynthetic GSB.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 8 July 2016; doi:10.1038/ismej.2016.93. © 2016 International Society for Microbial Ecology Source

Sarmento H.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences | Sarmento H.,Federal University of Sao Carlos | Casamayor E.O.,Integrative Freshwater Ecology Group | Auguet J.-C.,Integrative Freshwater Ecology Group | And 7 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Sharp boundaries in the physical environment are usually associated with abrupt shifts in organism abundance, activity, and diversity. Aquatic surface microlayers (SML) form a steep gradient between two contrasted environments, the atmosphere and surface waters, where they regulate the gas exchange between both environments. They usually harbor an abundant and active microbial life: the neuston. Few ecosystems are subjected to such a high UVR regime as high altitude lakes during summer. Here, we measured bulk estimates of heterotrophic activity, community structure and single-cell physiological properties by flow cytometry in 19 high-altitude remote Pyrenean lakes and compared the biological processes in the SML with those in the underlying surface waters. Phototrophic picoplankton (PPP) populations, were generally present in high abundances and in those lakes containing PPP populations with phycoerythrin (PE), total PPP abundance was higher at the SML. Heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) were also more abundant in the SML. Bacteria in the SML had lower leucine incorporation rates, lower percentages of "live" cells, and higher numbers of highly-respiring cells, likely resulting in a lower growth efficiency. No simple and direct linear relationships could be found between microbial abundances or activities and environmental variables, but factor analysis revealed that, despite their physical proximity, microbial life in SML and underlying waters was governed by different and independent processes. Overall, we demonstrate that piconeuston in high altitude lakes has specific features different from those of the picoplankton, and that they are highly affected by potential stressful environmental factors, such as high UVR radiation. © 2015 Sarmento, Casamayor, Auguet, Vila-Costa, Felip, Camarero and Gasol. Source

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