Integrative Brain Imaging Center

Kodaira, Japan

Integrative Brain Imaging Center

Kodaira, Japan
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Takamura T.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center | Hanakawa T.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center
Journal of Neural Transmission | Year: 2017

Although functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has long been used to assess task-related brain activity in neuropsychiatric disorders, it has not yet become a widely available clinical tool. Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has been the subject of recent attention in the fields of basic and clinical neuroimaging research. This method enables investigation of the functional organization of the brain and alterations of resting-state networks (RSNs) in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Rs-fMRI does not require participants to perform a demanding task, in contrast to task fMRI, which often requires participants to follow complex instructions. Rs-fMRI has a number of advantages over task fMRI for application with neuropsychiatric patients, for example, although applications of task fMR to participants for healthy are easy. However, it is difficult to apply these applications to patients with psychiatric and neurological disorders, because they may have difficulty in performing demanding cognitive task. Here, we review the basic methodology and analysis techniques relevant to clinical studies, and the clinical applications of the technique for examining neuropsychiatric disorders, focusing on mood disorders (major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder) and dementia (Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment). © 2017 Springer-Verlag Wien

Moriguchi Y.,National Institute of Mental Health | Moriguchi Y.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center | Moriguchi Y.,Harvard University | Touroutoglou A.,Harvard University | And 3 more authors.
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience | Year: 2014

People believe that women are more emotionally intense than men, but the scientific evidence is equivocal. In this study, we tested the novel hypothesis that men and women differ in the neural correlates of affective experience, rather than in the intensity of neural activity, with women being more internally (interoceptively) focused and men being more externally (visually) focused. Adult men (n = 17) and women (n = 17) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging study while viewing affectively potent images and rating their moment-to-moment feelings of subjective arousal. We found that men and women do not differ overall in their intensity of moment-to-moment affective experiences when viewing evocative images, but instead, as predicted, women showed a greater association between the momentary arousal ratings and neural responses in the anterior insula cortex, which represents bodily sensations, whereas men showed stronger correlations between their momentary arousal ratings and neural responses in the visual cortex. Men also showed enhanced functional connectivity between the dorsal anterior insula cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, which constitutes the circuitry involved with regulating shifts of attention to the world. These results demonstrate that the same affective experience is realized differently in different people, such that women's feelings are relatively more self-focused, whereas men's feelings are relatively more world-focused. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press.

Li L.M.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center | Li L.M.,Imperial College London | Uehara K.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center | Uehara K.,Japan Society for the Promotion of Science | Hanakawa T.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience | Year: 2015

There has been an explosion of research using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for investigating and modulating human cognitive and motor function in healthy populations. It has also been used in many studies seeking to improve deficits in disease populations. With the slew of studies reporting “promising results” for everything from motor recovery after stroke to boosting memory function, one could be easily seduced by the idea of tDCS being the next panacea for all neurological ills. However, huge variability exists in the reported effects of tDCS, with great variability in the effect sizes and even contradictory results reported. In this review, we consider the interindividual factors that may contribute to this variability. In particular, we discuss the importance of baseline neuronal state and features, anatomy, age and the inherent variability in the injured brain. We additionally consider how interindividual variability affects the results of motor-evoked potential (MEP) testing with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which, in turn, can lead to apparent variability in response to tDCS in motor studies. © 2015 Li, Uehara and Hanakawa.

Moriguchi Y.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center | Komaki G.,International University of Health and Welfare
BioPsychoSocial Medicine | Year: 2013

Alexithymia refers to difficulty in identifying and expressing one's emotions, and it is related to disturbed emotional regulation. It was originally proposed as a personality trait that plays a central role in psychosomatic diseases. This review of neuroimaging studies on alexithymia suggests that alexithymia is associated with reduced neural responses to emotional stimuli from the external environment, as well as with reduced activity during imagery, in the limbic and paralimbic areas (i.e., amygdala, insula, anterior/posterior cingulate cortex). In contrast, alexithymia is also known to be associated with enhanced neural activity in somatosensory and sensorimotor regions, including the insula. Moreover, neural activity in the medial, prefrontal, and insula cortex was lowered when people with alexithymia were involved in social tasks. Because most neuroimaging studies have been based on sampling by self-reported questionnaires, the contrasted features of neural activities in response to internal and external emotional stimuli need to be elucidated. The social and emotional responses of people with alexithymia are discussed and recommendations for future research are presented. © 2013 Moriguchi and Komaki; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Hanakawa T.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center
Neuroscience Research | Year: 2016

Over the last few decades, motor imagery has attracted the attention of researchers as a prototypical example of 'embodied cognition' and also as a basis for neuro-rehabilitation and brain-machine interfaces. The current definition of motor imagery is widely accepted, but it is important to note that various abilities rather than a single cognitive entity are dealt with under a single term. Here, motor imagery has been characterized based on four factors: (1) motor control, (2) explicitness, (3) sensory modalities, and (4) agency. Sorting out these factors characterizing motor imagery may explain some discrepancies and variability in the findings from previous studies and will help to optimize a study design in accordance with the purpose of each study in the future. © 2015 The Author.

Imabayashi E.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center | Inoue T.,Yokohama City University
Neuroscience Bulletin | Year: 2014

Statistical analysis in neuroimaging (referred to as “neurostatistical imaging”) is important in clinical neurology. Here, neurostatistical imaging and its superiority for diagnosing dementia are reviewed. In neurodegenerative dementia, the proportional distribution of brain perfusion, metabolism, or atrophy is important for understanding the symptoms and status of patients and for identifying regions of pathological damage. Although absolute quantitative changes are important in vascular disease, they are less important than relative values in neurodegenerative dementia. Even under resting conditions in healthy individuals, the distribution of brain perfusion and metabolism is asymmetrical and differs among areas. To detect small changes, statistical analysis such as the Z-score — the number of standard deviations by which a patient’s voxel value differs from the normal mean value — comparing normal controls is useful and also facilitates clinical assessment. Our recent finding of a longitudinal one-year reduction of glucose metabolism around the olfactory tract in Alzheimer’s disease using the recently-developed DARTEL normalization procedure is also presented. Furthermore, a newly-developed procedure to assess brain atrophy with CT-based voxel-based morphometry is illustrated. The promising possibilities of CT in neurostatistical imaging are also presented. © 2014, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Hanakawa T.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center | Hanakawa T.,Japan Science and Technology Agency
Journal of Orthopaedic Science | Year: 2012

Deafferentation pain following nerve injury annoys patients, and its management is a challenge in clinical practice. Although the mechanisms underlying deafferentation pain remain poorly understood, progress in the development of multidimensional neuroimaging techniques is casting some light on these issues. Deafferentation pain likely results from reorganization of the nervous system after nerve injury via processes that interact with the substrates for pain perception (the pain matrix). Therapeutic effects of motor cortex stimulation on deafferentation pain suggest that the core mechanisms underlying deafferentation pain also interact with the motor system. Therefore, simultaneous neuroimaging and brain stimulation, an emerging neuroimaging technique, was developed to investigate complicated interactions among motor, somatosensory, and pain systems. In healthy participants, parts of the pain matrix (the anterior cingulate cortex, parietal operculum, and thalamus) show activity during both somatosensory stimulation and brain stimulation to the motor cortex. This finding indicates that motor, somatosensory, and pain systems communicate among each other via the neural network. A better understanding of the plastic mechanisms influencing such cross-talk among these systems will help develop therapeutic interventions using brain stimulation and neurofeedback. © The Japanese Orthopaedic Association 2012.

Matsuda H.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center
Ageing Research Reviews | Year: 2016

MRI based evaluation of brain atrophy is regarded as a valid method to stage the disease and to assess progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Volumetric software programs have made it possible to quantify gray matter in the human brain in an automated fashion. At present, voxel based morphometry (VBM) is easily applicable to the routine clinical procedure with a short execution time. The importance of the VBM approach is that it is not biased to one particular structure and is able to assess anatomical differences throughout the brain. Stand-alone VBM software running on Windows, Voxel-based Specific Regional analysis system for AD (VSRAD), has been widely used in the clinical diagnosis of AD in Japan. On the other hand, recent application of graph theory to MRI has made it possible to analyze changes in structural connectivity in AD. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Matsuda H.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center
Aging and Disease | Year: 2013

Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) using structural brain MRI has been widely used for assessment of normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). VBM of MRI data comprises segmentation into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid partitions, anatomical standardization of all the images to the same stereotactic space using linear affine transformation and further non-linear warping, smoothing, and finally performing a statistical analysis. Two techniques for VBM are commonly used, optimized VBM using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 2 or SPM5 with non-linear warping based on discrete cosine transforms and SPM8 plus non-linear warping based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL). In normal aging, most cortical regions prominently in frontal and insular areas have been reported to show age-related gray matter atrophy. In contrast, specific structures such as amygdala, hippocampus, and thalamus have been reported to be preserved in normal aging. On the other hand, VBM studies have demonstrated progression of atrophy mapping upstream to Braak's stages of neurofibrillary tangle deposition in AD. The earliest atrophy takes place in medial temporal structures. Stand-alone VBM software using SPM8 plus DARTEL running on Windows has been newly developed as an adjunct to the clinical assessment of AD. This software provides a Z-score map as a consequence of comparison of a patient's MRI with a normal database.

Matsuda H.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center
Kaku igaku. The Japanese journal of nuclear medicine | Year: 2013

This survey was performed in order to investigate the incidence of adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals in FY2011 in Japan. It was based on responses to questionnaires sent to nuclear medicine institutions. The reply was obtained from 999 institutions among 1,253 to which the questionnaire had been sent. Fourteen cases of adverse reactions were reported. A total of 1,068,833 radiopharmaceutical administrations was reported. The incidence of adverse reactions per 100,000 cases was 1.3. One case of defect products was reported, and the incidence of defect products per 100,000 cases was 0.1.

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