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Takamura T.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center | Hanakawa T.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center
Journal of Neural Transmission | Year: 2017

Although functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has long been used to assess task-related brain activity in neuropsychiatric disorders, it has not yet become a widely available clinical tool. Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has been the subject of recent attention in the fields of basic and clinical neuroimaging research. This method enables investigation of the functional organization of the brain and alterations of resting-state networks (RSNs) in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Rs-fMRI does not require participants to perform a demanding task, in contrast to task fMRI, which often requires participants to follow complex instructions. Rs-fMRI has a number of advantages over task fMRI for application with neuropsychiatric patients, for example, although applications of task fMR to participants for healthy are easy. However, it is difficult to apply these applications to patients with psychiatric and neurological disorders, because they may have difficulty in performing demanding cognitive task. Here, we review the basic methodology and analysis techniques relevant to clinical studies, and the clinical applications of the technique for examining neuropsychiatric disorders, focusing on mood disorders (major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder) and dementia (Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment). © 2017 Springer-Verlag Wien

Moriguchi Y.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center | Komaki G.,International University of Health and Welfare
BioPsychoSocial Medicine | Year: 2013

Alexithymia refers to difficulty in identifying and expressing one's emotions, and it is related to disturbed emotional regulation. It was originally proposed as a personality trait that plays a central role in psychosomatic diseases. This review of neuroimaging studies on alexithymia suggests that alexithymia is associated with reduced neural responses to emotional stimuli from the external environment, as well as with reduced activity during imagery, in the limbic and paralimbic areas (i.e., amygdala, insula, anterior/posterior cingulate cortex). In contrast, alexithymia is also known to be associated with enhanced neural activity in somatosensory and sensorimotor regions, including the insula. Moreover, neural activity in the medial, prefrontal, and insula cortex was lowered when people with alexithymia were involved in social tasks. Because most neuroimaging studies have been based on sampling by self-reported questionnaires, the contrasted features of neural activities in response to internal and external emotional stimuli need to be elucidated. The social and emotional responses of people with alexithymia are discussed and recommendations for future research are presented. © 2013 Moriguchi and Komaki; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Nakatsuka T.,Toho University | Imabayashi E.,International University of Japan | Matsuda H.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center | Sakakibara R.,Toho University | And 2 more authors.
Neuroradiology | Year: 2013

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to identify brain atrophy specific for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and to evaluate the discriminatory performance of this specific atrophy between DLB and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 60 DLB and 30 AD patients who had undergone 3D T1-weighted MRI. We randomly divided the DLB patients into two equal groups (A and B). First, we obtained a target volume of interest (VOI) for DLB-specific atrophy using correlation analysis of the percentage rate of significant whole white matter (WM) atrophy calculated using the Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD) based on statistical parametric mapping 8 (SPM8) plus diffeomorphic anatomic registration through exponentiated Lie algebra, with segmented WM images in group A. We then evaluated the usefulness of this target VOI for discriminating the remaining 30 DLB patients in group B from the 30 AD patients. Z score values in this target VOI obtained from VSRAD were used as the determinant in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: Specific target VOIs for DLB were determined in the right-side dominant dorsal midbrain, right-side dominant dorsal pons, and bilateral cerebellum. ROC analysis revealed that the target VOI limited to the midbrain exhibited the highest area under the ROC curves of 0.75. Conclusions: DLB patients showed specific atrophy in the midbrain, pons, and cerebellum. Midbrain atrophy demonstrated the highest power for discriminating DLB and AD. This approach may be useful for determining the contributions of DLB and AD pathologies to the dementia syndrome. © 2013 The Author(s).

Imabayashi E.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center | Inoue T.,Yokohama City University
Neuroscience Bulletin | Year: 2014

Statistical analysis in neuroimaging (referred to as “neurostatistical imaging”) is important in clinical neurology. Here, neurostatistical imaging and its superiority for diagnosing dementia are reviewed. In neurodegenerative dementia, the proportional distribution of brain perfusion, metabolism, or atrophy is important for understanding the symptoms and status of patients and for identifying regions of pathological damage. Although absolute quantitative changes are important in vascular disease, they are less important than relative values in neurodegenerative dementia. Even under resting conditions in healthy individuals, the distribution of brain perfusion and metabolism is asymmetrical and differs among areas. To detect small changes, statistical analysis such as the Z-score — the number of standard deviations by which a patient’s voxel value differs from the normal mean value — comparing normal controls is useful and also facilitates clinical assessment. Our recent finding of a longitudinal one-year reduction of glucose metabolism around the olfactory tract in Alzheimer’s disease using the recently-developed DARTEL normalization procedure is also presented. Furthermore, a newly-developed procedure to assess brain atrophy with CT-based voxel-based morphometry is illustrated. The promising possibilities of CT in neurostatistical imaging are also presented. © 2014, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Hanakawa T.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center | Hanakawa T.,Japan Science and Technology Agency
Journal of Orthopaedic Science | Year: 2012

Deafferentation pain following nerve injury annoys patients, and its management is a challenge in clinical practice. Although the mechanisms underlying deafferentation pain remain poorly understood, progress in the development of multidimensional neuroimaging techniques is casting some light on these issues. Deafferentation pain likely results from reorganization of the nervous system after nerve injury via processes that interact with the substrates for pain perception (the pain matrix). Therapeutic effects of motor cortex stimulation on deafferentation pain suggest that the core mechanisms underlying deafferentation pain also interact with the motor system. Therefore, simultaneous neuroimaging and brain stimulation, an emerging neuroimaging technique, was developed to investigate complicated interactions among motor, somatosensory, and pain systems. In healthy participants, parts of the pain matrix (the anterior cingulate cortex, parietal operculum, and thalamus) show activity during both somatosensory stimulation and brain stimulation to the motor cortex. This finding indicates that motor, somatosensory, and pain systems communicate among each other via the neural network. A better understanding of the plastic mechanisms influencing such cross-talk among these systems will help develop therapeutic interventions using brain stimulation and neurofeedback. © The Japanese Orthopaedic Association 2012.

Kasahara K.,National Institute of Neuroscience | Kasahara K.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center | DaSalla C.S.,National Institute of Neuroscience | DaSalla C.S.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center | And 5 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2015

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) offer a potential means to replace or restore lost motor function. However, BCI performance varies considerably between users, the reasons for which are poorly understood. Here we investigated the relationship between sensorimotor rhythm (SMR)-based BCI performance and brain structure. Participants were instructed to control a computer cursor using right- and left-hand motor imagery, which primarily modulated their left- and right-hemispheric SMR powers, respectively. Although most participants were able to control the BCI with success rates significantly above chance level even at the first encounter, they also showed substantial inter-individual variability in BCI success rate. Participants also underwent T1-weighted three-dimensional structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI data were subjected to voxel-based morphometry using BCI success rate as an independent variable. We found that BCI performance correlated with gray matter volume of the supplementary motor area, supplementary somatosensory area, and dorsal premotor cortex. We suggest that SMR-based BCI performance is associated with development of non-primary somatosensory and motor areas. Advancing our understanding of BCI performance in relation to its neuroanatomical correlates may lead to better customization of BCIs based on individual brain structure. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Matsuda H.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center
Ageing Research Reviews | Year: 2016

MRI based evaluation of brain atrophy is regarded as a valid method to stage the disease and to assess progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Volumetric software programs have made it possible to quantify gray matter in the human brain in an automated fashion. At present, voxel based morphometry (VBM) is easily applicable to the routine clinical procedure with a short execution time. The importance of the VBM approach is that it is not biased to one particular structure and is able to assess anatomical differences throughout the brain. Stand-alone VBM software running on Windows, Voxel-based Specific Regional analysis system for AD (VSRAD), has been widely used in the clinical diagnosis of AD in Japan. On the other hand, recent application of graph theory to MRI has made it possible to analyze changes in structural connectivity in AD. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Matsuda H.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center
Brain and Nerve | Year: 2015

Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) using structural brain MRI has been widely used for the early and differential diagnosis and evaluation of disease progression in neuropsychiatric diseases. VBM of MRI data comprises segmentation into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid partitions; anatomical standardization of all the images to the same stereotactic space using linear affine transformation and further non-linear warping and smoothing; and finally performing statistical analysis. Stand-alone VBM software using SPM8 plus DARTEL running on Windows (Voxel-based Specific Regional analysis system for Alzheimer's disease, VSRAD®) has been developed as an adjunct to the clinical assessment. This software provides a Z-score map as a result of the comparison of the patient's MRI with a normal database.

Matsuda H.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center
Aging and Disease | Year: 2013

Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) using structural brain MRI has been widely used for assessment of normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). VBM of MRI data comprises segmentation into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid partitions, anatomical standardization of all the images to the same stereotactic space using linear affine transformation and further non-linear warping, smoothing, and finally performing a statistical analysis. Two techniques for VBM are commonly used, optimized VBM using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 2 or SPM5 with non-linear warping based on discrete cosine transforms and SPM8 plus non-linear warping based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL). In normal aging, most cortical regions prominently in frontal and insular areas have been reported to show age-related gray matter atrophy. In contrast, specific structures such as amygdala, hippocampus, and thalamus have been reported to be preserved in normal aging. On the other hand, VBM studies have demonstrated progression of atrophy mapping upstream to Braak's stages of neurofibrillary tangle deposition in AD. The earliest atrophy takes place in medial temporal structures. Stand-alone VBM software using SPM8 plus DARTEL running on Windows has been newly developed as an adjunct to the clinical assessment of AD. This software provides a Z-score map as a consequence of comparison of a patient's MRI with a normal database.

Matsuda H.,Integrative Brain Imaging Center
Kaku igaku. The Japanese journal of nuclear medicine | Year: 2013

This survey was performed in order to investigate the incidence of adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals in FY2011 in Japan. It was based on responses to questionnaires sent to nuclear medicine institutions. The reply was obtained from 999 institutions among 1,253 to which the questionnaire had been sent. Fourteen cases of adverse reactions were reported. A total of 1,068,833 radiopharmaceutical administrations was reported. The incidence of adverse reactions per 100,000 cases was 1.3. One case of defect products was reported, and the incidence of defect products per 100,000 cases was 0.1.

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