Integrated Services for the Development of Aquaculture and Fisheries

Iloilo, Philippines

Integrated Services for the Development of Aquaculture and Fisheries

Iloilo, Philippines
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Valderrama D.,University of Florida | Cai J.,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations | Hishamunda N.,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations | Ridler N.,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations | And 9 more authors.
Aquaculture Economics and Management | Year: 2015

The farming of the red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and related species as raw material for the hydrocolloid carrageenan rapidly spread from the Philippines in the late 1960s to Indonesia, Tanzania, and other tropical countries around the world. Although numerous studies have documented positive socioeconomic impacts for seaweed farming, factors such as diseases and distance to export markets have led to an uneven development of the industry. Using standard budgeting techniques, this study adapted production and market data from a FAO-led global review of seaweed farming to develop comparative enterprise budgets for eight farming systems in six countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, Tanzania, India, Solomon Islands, and Mexico). Although the basic technology package is the same across countries, the study revealed large differences in the economic performance of systems due to wide variations in farm prices and the scale of operations. Although seaweed farming is a suitable activity for small-scale producers, a minimum of 2,000 m of cultures lines are still necessary to ensure adequate economic returns. Greater farming plots may be needed if farm prices are well below the average farm prices paid in Indonesia and the Philippines. Policy recommendations are made to improve the economic potential of underperforming systems. © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Hurtado A.Q.,Integrated Services for the Development of Aquaculture and Fisheries | Montano M.N.E.,University of the Philippines | Martinez-Goss M.R.,Institute of Biological science
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2013

An abundance of marine algae along the Philippines' long, irregular coastline (36,289 km) has made it inevitable for Filipinos to exploit algae for food, feeds, medicine, or other purposes. Among the most popular of these algae are the carrageenophytes, which include four genera, six species, and 21 morphotypes/varieties/cultivars under the Family Solieriaceae. However, commercial production did not begin until 1973. The development of carrageenophyte farming for commercial purposes evolved from simple fixed-bottom monoline farming by coastal farmers, who refined the technology themselves, with the help and guidance of local and international scientists, which has led to a commercially viable industry with a maximum estimated production of 97,000-102,820 dry, metric tons in 2004. Farm gate revenues for that year were estimated at US$ 82.45-87.4 million (four croppings year-1), whose main recipients were the local seaweed farmers. However, in 2008, production started to decline, which was brought primarily by the deteriorating quality of propagules and the perennial occurrence of "ice-ice" and harmful endophytes caused by environmental stresses due to unfavorable weather conditions, and secondarily, the peace and order problem in the major producing areas like Zamboanga, Maguindanao, Basilan, and Sulu in Mindanao and insufficient government support. This paper aims to assess the present situation and suggest how to possibly reverse the situation to its usual productive periods. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Hurtado A.Q.,Integrated Services for the Development of Aquaculture and Fisheries | Joe M.,Kasangyangan Nursery Seaweed Enterprise | Sanares R.C.,University of the Philippines in the Visayas | Fan D.,P.A. College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2012

An optimization study on concentration (viz. 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 g L-1) and dipping time (i. e., 30 and 60 min) was conducted on three different color morphotypes (i. e., reddish brown, yellowish brown and purple) of the commercial carrageenophyte Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty. The study tested the efficacy of Acadian Marine Plant Extract Powder (AMPEP) on the growth rate and occurrence of macro-epiphytes from August to November, representing the wet season of the Philippines. The optimum concentration and dipping time were obtained at 0.1 g L-1 and 30 min, respectively. These optimum parameters were then further verified in a commercial nursery using the yellowish brown morphotype. In another experiment, K. alvarezii (tambalang purple morphotype) and Kappaphycus striatum (Schmitz) Doty (sacol green morphotype) with, and without, AMPEP dippings were tested for their total phenolic content, free radical scavenging and iron chelating activities. Seaweed dipped in AMPEP demonstrated higher growth rates than the control. Lower concentrations (i. e., 0.01-0.1 g L-1) and shorter dipping time (e. g., 30 min) produced higher growth rates than the highest concentration (1.0 g L-1) and longer (60 min) dipping time. The presence of macro-epiphytes such as filamentous Ulva did not adversely affect the robust growth of the three color morphotypes of K. alvarezii. The lowest and highest growth rates obtained in a commercial seaweed nursery using the optimum concentration and dipping time of AMPEP were observed in July and January with 0.8% and 6.7% day-1, respectively. The antioxidant content of K. alvarezii (tambalang purple) and K. striatum (sacol green) responded differently to AMPEP dipping. The changes in total antioxidant activity followed almost the same trend as in phenolic content, in both K. alvarezii (tambalang purple) and K. striatum (sacol green), whereas, the iron chelating ability of both seaweeds with and without AMPEP dipping varied monthly. The results obtained for the use of AMPEP dips for commercial Kappaphycus cultivation demonstrated an effective management tool for improved farming protocols. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Hurtado A.Q.,Integrated Services for the Development of Aquaculture and Fisheries | Gerung G.S.,Sam Ratulangi University | Yasir S.,Universiti Malaysia Sabah | Critchley A.T.,Acadian Seaplants Ltd ASL
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2013

The Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines East Asia Growth Area (BIMP-EAGA) is located within the Coral Triangle, known to have the world's richest biodiversity in marine flora and fauna. This region lies within the 10° N and 10° S of the Equator where natural populations of both Kappaphycus and Eucheuma grow luxuriantly and abundantly. It is in this same region where commercial cultivation of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma began in the Philippines around the mid-1960s. Commercial farming of Kappaphycus (which was originally called Eucheuma) was successful in the Philippines from the early 1970s, after which the technology was transferred to Indonesia and Malaysia in the late 1970s. No seaweed cultivation has been reported in Brunei. At present, carrageenophytes are cultivated in sub-tropical to tropical countries circumferentially around the globe within the 10° N and S of the Equator. However, their combined production is still low as compared to Indonesia, the Philippines, and Malaysia. Notably, few improvements in farming techniques have been made since its first introduction. Some of the major improvements were the introduction of deep-water farming using hanging long lines, multiple rafts, and spider webs in the Philippines; the use of short and long 'loops', instead of plastic 'tie-tie' in Indonesia; and mechanization in harvesting and use of solar "greenhouse" drying in Malaysia. Commercial cultivation of tropical red seaweeds in the BIMP-EAGA region is dominated by Kappaphycus and Eucheuma (carrageenophytes) and Gracilaria (agarophytes) and the area became the major region for the production of carageenophytes and agarophytes globally. In particular, Indonesia is a major center for the production of Gracilaria. There is an increasing demand for other agarophytes/carrageenophytes in the international market such as Gelidium spp., Pterocladia spp., Porphyroglossum sp., and Ptilophora sp. for paper and ethanol production in Indonesia and Malaysia, and Halymenia for phycoerythrin pigments in the Philippines currently pursued in an experimental stage. A summary of the present status, problems, sustainability, and challenges for the cultivation of tropical red seaweeds in the BIMP-EAGA region are discussed in this paper. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Lim P.E.,University of Malaya | Tan J.,University of Malaya | Phang S.M.,University of Malaya | Nikmatullah A.,University of Mataram | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2013

The commercial importance of carrageenophytes Kappaphycus and Eucheuma is well known, with much interest in terms of cultivation, marketing, and research. Considering the many lucrative prospects, these red seaweeds were introduced into various parts of the world for farming, where merely a few were comprehensively documented. Despite being extensively cultivated throughout Southeast Asia, the genetic diversity of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma is poorly studied, where heavy reliance is placed on the use of local or commercial names for identifications. This study used the mitochondrial-encoded cox1 and cox2-3 spacer genetic markers to investigate the Kappaphycus and Eucheuma haplotypes, cultivated and wild, available throughout Southeast Asia. Concatenated cox1-cox2-3 spacer datasets were also analyzed. The near full-length cox1 gene is preferred at revealing the genetic diversity of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma, provided a larger reference database is available. Both molecular markers were capable of delineating common members of the genus Kappaphycus (i.e., Kappaphycus alvarezii, Kappaphycus striatus, and Kappaphycus cottonii) and Eucheuma denticulatum, and revealed interesting genotypes and new species which may be potential alternatives to the common cultivars as well as materials for research. The relative scarcity of Eucheuma species is discussed and future sites for sampling are recommended. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Hurtado A.Q.,Integrated Services for the Development of Aquaculture and Fisheries | Neish I.C., & CV Evadian | Critchley A.T.,Acadian Seaplants Ltd ASL
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2015

Kappaphycus is one of the most significant, economically valuable red seaweeds, cultivated in tropical and subtropical waters. This alga demands a relatively high market value globally, due to applications of the kappa carrageenan colloid that is industrially extracted from the biomass. Carrageenan is widely used in food, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals and for aquaculture applications. The first successful commercial cultivation of Kappaphycus (previously called Eucheuma) was recorded from the southern Philippines in the late 1960s using the line and stake method. Dramatic production increases were achieved, with the Philippines being the leading producer of Kappaphycus for more than 30 years, until it was overtaken by Indonesia (in approximately 2008). By 1988, Kappaphycus farming became widespread in Indonesia, and efforts have been undertaken to spread Kappaphycus farming to more than 30 countries worldwide. Since 2008 Kappaphycus production steadily rose in Indonesia, but production from the Philippines has tended to decline since 2011. Research and development (R&D) initiatives focusing on Kappaphycus in the Philippines emphasized the means to increase productivity and solutions to issues causing declining production. R&D focusing on Kappaphycus cultivars in the Philippines was made through the National Seaweed R&D Program. Several institutions and research centers took major steps to achieve these objectives. There were significant and relevant results obtained in studies of molecular taxonomy, factors affecting sporulation, tissue culture and mutagenesis, protoplast isolation, strain selection, mitigation of ‘ice–ice’ malaise and Neosiphonia infestations. A recent development in Kappaphycus farming was the discovery that use of an extract from a brown seaweed acts as a biostimulant to improve tolerance of cultivars to abiotic stresses. Problems and challenges encountered in the production of Kappaphycus, even after more than 40 years of farming, but which needed to be overcome, are discussed. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Tan J.,University of Malaya | Lim P.-E.,University of Malaya | Phang S.-M.,University of Malaya | Hong D.D.,Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

DNA barcoding has been a major advancement in the field of taxonomy, seeing much effort put into the barcoding of wide taxa of organisms, macro and microalgae included. The mitochondrial-encoded cox1 and plastid-encoded rbcL has been proposed as potential DNA barcodes for rhodophytes, but are yet to be tested on the commercially important carrageenophytes Kappaphycus and Eucheuma. This study gauges the effectiveness of four markers, namely the mitochondrial cox1, cox2, cox2-3 spacer and the plastid rbcL in DNA barcoding on selected Kappaphycus and Eucheuma from Southeast Asia. Marker assessments were performed using established distance and tree-based identification criteria from earlier studies. Barcoding patterns on a larger scale were simulated by empirically testing on the commonly used cox2-3 spacer. The phylogeny of these rhodophytes was also briefly described. In this study, the cox2 marker which satisfies the prerequisites of DNA barcodes was found to exhibit moderately high interspecific divergences with no intraspecific variations, thus a promising marker for the DNA barcoding of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma. However, the already extensively used cox2-3 spacer was deemed to be in overall more appropriate as a DNA barcode for these two genera. On a wider scale, cox1 and rbcL were still better DNA barcodes across the rhodophyte taxa when practicality and cost-efficiency were taken into account. The phylogeny of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma were generally similar to those earlier reported. Still, the application of DNA barcoding has demonstrated our relatively poor taxonomic comprehension of these seaweeds, thus suggesting more in-depth efforts in taxonomic restructuring as well as establishment. © 2012 Tan et al.

Tan J.,University of Malaya | Lim P.E.,University of Malaya | Phang S.M.,University of Malaya | Rahiman A.,Ministry of Agriculture and Agro industries | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2014

A new species, Kappaphycus malesianus, is established as a new member of the genus Kappaphycus. Locally known as the “Aring-aring” variety by farmers in Malaysia and the Philippines, this variety has been commercially cultivated, often together with Kappaphycus alvarezii due to the similarities in morphology. Despite also producing kappa-carrageenan, the lower biomass of the K. malesianus when mixed with K. alvarezii ultimately affects the carrageenan yield. Morphological observations, on both wild and cultivated plants, coupled with molecular data have shown K. malesianus to be genetically distinct from its Kappaphycus congeners. The present study describes the morphology and anatomy of this new species as supported by DNA data, with additional morphological features for distinguishing between commercial Kappaphycus cultivars. © 2013, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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