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Marietta, GA, United States

Kim S.K.,University of Michigan | Burris D.R.,Integrated Science and Technology Inc. | Bryant-Genevier J.,University of Michigan | Gorder K.A.,75 CEG CEVR | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2012

We demonstrate the use of two prototype Si-microfabricated gas chromatographs (μGC) for continuous, short-term measurements of indoor trichloroethylene (TCE) vapor concentrations related to the investigation of TCE vapor intrusion (VI) in two houses. In the first house, with documented TCE VI, temporal variations in TCE air concentrations were monitored continuously for up to 48 h near the primary VI entry location under different levels of induced differential pressure (relative to the subslab). Concentrations ranged from 0.23 to 27 ppb by volume (1.2-150 μg/m3), and concentration trends agreed closely with those determined from concurrent reference samples. The sensitivity and temporal resolution of the measurements were sufficiently high to detect transient fluctuations in concentration resulting from short-term changes in variables affecting the extent of VI. Spatial monitoring showed a decreasing TCE concentration gradient with increasing distance from the primary VI entry location. In the second house, with no TCE VI, spatial profiles derived from the μGC prototype data revealed an intentionally hidden source of TCE within a closet, demonstrating the capability for locating non-VI sources. Concentrations measured in this house ranged from 0.51 to 56 ppb (2.7-300 μg/m3), in good agreement with reference method values. This first field demonstration of μGC technology for automated, near-real-time, selective VOC monitoring at low- or subppb levels augurs well for its use in short- and long-term on-site analysis of indoor air in support of VI assessments. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Kim S.K.,University of Michigan | Burris D.R.,Integrated Science and Technology Inc. | Chang H.,University of Michigan | Bryant-Genevier J.,University of Michigan | Zellers E.T.,University of Michigan
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Results are presented of inaugural field tests of two identical prototype microfabricated gas chromatographs (μGC) adapted for the in situ determination of trichloroethylene (TCE) in indoor air in support of vapor intrusion (VI) investigations. Each μGC prototype has a pretrap and partially selective high-volume sampler of conventional design, a micromachined-Si focuser for injection, dual micromachined-Si columns for separation, and an integrated array of four microscale chemiresistors with functionalized gold nanoparticle interface films for multichannel detection. Scrubbed ambient air is used as the carrier gas. Field-generated calibration curves were linear for injected TCE masses of 26-414 ng (4.8-77 ppb·L; r2 > 0.98) and the projected single-sensor detection limit was 0.052 ppb for an 8-L air sample collected and analyzed in 20 min. Consistent performance between the prototypes and good medium-term stability were shown. Above the mitigation action level (MAL) of 2.3 ppb for the field-test site, μGC TCE determinations fell within ±25% of those from the reference method for 21 of 26 measurements, in the presence of up to 37 documented background VOCs. Below the MAL, positive biases were consistently observed, which are attributable to background VOCs that were unresolvable chromatographically or by analysis of the sensor-array response patterns. Results demonstrate that this type of μGC instrument could serve the need for routine TCE determinations in VI-related assessment and mitigation efforts. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Kim S.K.,University of Michigan | Chang H.,University of Michigan | Bryant J.G.,University of Michigan | Burris D.R.,Integrated Science and Technology Inc. | Zellers E.T.,University of Michigan
2011 16th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference, TRANSDUCERS'11 | Year: 2011

Two fully integrated and automatically controlled MEMS gas chromatographs (GC) were successfully deployed in the field to monitor trichloroethylene (TCE) at trace-level concentrations (0.6-80 ppb) in homes suffering from vapor intrusion (VI) from surrounding TCE-contaminated soil. Each instrument combines a high-volume sampling module (non-microfabricated) with a microanalytical module consisting of a microfocuser, dual microcolumns, and a chemiresistor array detector. A complete sampling and analytical cycle requires 15-30 min, depending on required sensitivity. Limits of detection as low as 0.02 ppb were achieved. TCE was separated from 45 co-contaminants. Use of the prototypes in fixed-site (temporal TCE fluctuations) and portable operating modes (spatial mapping of TCE) was successfully demonstrated. Good agreement with concentrations determined with standard reference methods was achieved. © 2011 IEEE. Source

He Y.T.,California Institute of Technology | Fitzmaurice A.G.,California Institute of Technology | Bilgin A.,California Institute of Technology | Choi S.,University of California at Merced | And 6 more authors.
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2010

The behavior of As in the subsurface environment was examined along a transect of groundwater monitoring wells at a Superfund site, where enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) is being used for the remediation of groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The transect was installed parallel to the groundwater flow direction through the treatment area. The ERD technology involves the injection of organic C (OC) to stimulate in situ microbial dechlorination processes. A secondary effect of the ERD treatment at this site, however, is the mobilization of As, as well as Fe and Mn. The concentrations of these elements are low in groundwater collected upgradient of the ERD treatment area, indicating that, in the absence of the injected OC, the As that occurs naturally in the sediment is relatively immobile. Batch experiments conducted using sediments from the site inoculated with an Fe(III)- and As(V)-reducing bacterium and amended with lactate resulted in mobilization of As, Fe and Mn, suggesting that As mobilization in the field is due to microbial processes. In the areas of the transect downgradient of the ERD treatment area, however, the concentrations of OC, As, Fe and Mn in the groundwater are not elevated relative to background levels. The decrease in the dissolved concentration of OC can be attributed to mineralization by microorganisms. The losses of As, Fe and Mn from the dissolved phase must presumably be accompanied by their uptake onto aquifer solids, but chemical extractions provided evidence only for the enrichment of Fe(II). Nor could sorption of As(III) onto sediments be detected by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) against the background of native As in the sediments, which was present as As(V). © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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